The "Looting Question" Bibliography:
Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and "Professional" Archaeology

Compiled by Hugh Jarvis (PhD, MLS)
<hjarvis AT>
University at Buffalo

Last updated: 06/28/19

This resource is intended to be provide a comprehensive overview of what is often a controversial topic, for scholarly and classroom use. Coverage is intended to include extreme perspectives as well as more neutral or consensus-seeking views. The list is extensive, with the hope that users will be able to find a range of these items close to hand. While the main focus is on North America, materials from around the world are noted whenever possible (and certainly encouraged). Items are added as they come to my attention or are contributed by others. Annotations are mine except as noted, and are NOT intended to be incendiary. Comments and additions are most welcome!

For searching library catalogs, try these Library of Congress Subject Headings:


Look for NEW! mm/dd/yy or particularly (HOT!) items. (multimedia available) indicates multimedia is available. Any that are marked with "??" need further checking, either to complete or confirm citation information or for relevancy.

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

A. in flagrante

This section documents what appear to be extreme cases where archaeological and scholarly ethics are being violated usually in the name of profit and personal greed. Additional examples will be flagged throughout the rest of this site, often as news articles in the Books & Articles Section.

* Changes to Italy's heritage laws (HOT!)
- From their site: "The Italian Ministery of Cultural Heritage is undertaking a radical reform of the legal system which protects the archeological monuments. After 110 years of activity the Archaeological Heritage Offices are being cancelled. The reform has been designed very quickly, without any debate inside the the Ministery itself. Furthermore, it seems that the rules concerning rescue archaeology are going to be eliminated from the new code of the public contracts (in opposition to the European Valletta Convention). All this would destroy the preservation system of the italian archaeological heritage. Aware of the need to enhance the saveguarding system we invite the Ministery to withdraw proposed decree and to open a discussion with the experts in the field by involving also the international scientific community. The archaeological heritage of Italy is world heritage!"

* National Geographic's Diggers!
- The description for an episode called "Digging Dixie" says
KG and Ringy hit the beaches along Charleston, S.C. Hurricanes may be a nightmare for homeowners, but they are heaven-sent for treasure hunters. Storms far out at sea often churn up the shoreline, revealing all kinds of treasure, or juice, as they call it.
- The National Geographic Society has announced they will work with the archaeological community to provide a more educated and ethical depiction of archaeology.
- Because this series declares a lack of concern for historical accuracy or the importance of context in understanding historic and prehistoric artifacts, it has been opposed by the Society for American Archaeology (letter), Society for Historical Archaeology (letter), American Anthropological Association (letter), Archaeological Institute of America, and Register of Professional Archaeologists.
- A neutral discussion of both sides of this issue is provided by Science Magazine's ScienceInsider "Archaeologists Protest 'Glamorization' of Looting on TV".

* National Geographic's Nazi War Diggers
- Their description says:
"Untold numbers of soldiers and their weapons remain buried across the vast landscape of World War Two.s Eastern Front. Three war diggers are racing against time to save this history from being looted or lost."
Yet the site provides no indication that the three 'diggers' are professionals or even qualified amateurs... witness this bio:
"No period of history is left untouched. Kris has dug up Iron Age relics, Roman coins and lots of WW2 / Battle of Britain artifacts, including regimental badges. It was only through metal detecting that Kris became obsessed about the history that surrounds all of us." (source)
- a petion has been started on
- This letter of protest was sent on March 31st, 2014, to the National Geographic Society, National Geographic Channels and National Geographic Channel International by the presidents of six anthropological and archeological associations based in the United States and Europe, including the AAA. The effort was spearheaded by Jeff Altschul, President of the Society for American Archeology.
- UPDATE (Mar 31, 2014)
National Geographic Channel Pulls 'Nazi War Diggers' Series By TOM MASHBERG New York Times March 31, 2014, 7:08 pm

National Geographic Channel said Monday that it would "indefinitely" pull a planned television series on unearthing Nazi war graves after days of blistering criticism from archeologists and others who said the show handled the dead with macabre disrespect.

The channel said that after "consulting with colleagues" at the National Geographic Society, it would not broadcast the series, "Nazi War Diggers," in May as scheduled "while questions raised in recent days regarding accusations about the program can be properly reviewed." The show was to have been broadcast globally except in the United States.

National Geographic Channel International had commissioned four episodes of the show, in which two British metal detecting specialists, a Polish relics hunter, and an American, Craig Gottlieb, who deals in Nazi World War II artifacts, hunt for the graves of German and Red Army soldiers on the Eastern Front.

National Geographic Channel issued a statement Friday defending the show and saying the criticism was premature, based on early publicity materials that "did not provide important context about our team's methodology." The channel pulled those materials from its website.

* SpikeTV's American Digger
- The show will feature "recovery expert" Rue Shumate and "battlefield historian" Bob Buttafuso and its description says:
"there are millions of historical relics buried in backyards just waiting to be discovered and turned into profit. 'American Digger' hopes to claim a piece of that pie as the series travels to a different city each week... searching for high-value artifacts and relics, some of which have been untouched for centuries. After pinpointing historical locations such as Civil War and Revolutionary War battlefields, Savage's first task is to convince reluctant homeowners to let his team dig up their property using state-of-the-art metal detectors and heavy-duty excavation equipment. The team will then sell any artifacts found for a substantial profit..."
- Their activities in St. Augustine have been criticized by local archaeologists -- see Spike TV Network crew finds 'Spanish gold' in backyard.
- The Society for American Archaeology (letter), Society for Historical Archaeology (letter), American Anthropological Association (letter), Archaeological Institute of America, and Register of Professional Archaeologists all oppose this show's ethics.
- A neutral discussion of both sides of this issue is provided by Science Magazine's ScienceInsider "Archaeologists Protest 'Glamorization' of Looting on TV".
- Their activities in St. Augustine have been criticized by local archaeologists -- see Spike TV Network crew finds 'Spanish gold' in backyard.

* The Travel Channel's Dig Wars
- The description says: "Dig Wars follows 3 teams of America's best relic hunters, competing to find the most valuable artifacts at different historical locations across the country. The teams have from sunrise to sunset to hunt for artifacts . who will dig up the most valuable find?"
- The American Anthropological Association has protested this newest reality sh ow assault on our cultural heritage. President Mullings' letter (PDF) gives a detailed overview of the show and suggestions to rethink the show.s direction towards a productive and entertaining piece.

B. Periodicals

The following periodicals have published special issues or regularly contain commentary, articles, or letters on relevant topics.

For archaeological views, see:
* Culture Without Context Newsletter of the Near Eastern Project of the Illicit Antiquities Research Centre.
* Archaeology Magazine is a popular magazine which frequently has useful articles. Especially see volume 44 number 3 for a series of letters on looting, and their Archaeology Watch postings, which include a series of topical archives such as: threats to cultural heritage, Hague Convention; acquisition policies, UNESCO Convention, legal cases, underwater heritage, and a variety of countries.
* The Journal of Field Archaeology has a regular feature called the "Antiquities Marketplace: News and Commentary on the Illicit Trade in Antiquities".
* (HOT!) African Arts (1995) volume 28, number 4, had a special issue called "Protecting Mali's Cultural Heritage" (articles listed below).
* Biblical Archaeology Review (BAR) has regular editorials and letters to its editor on relevant topics.
* The Society for American Archaeology (SAA) SAA Bulletin has three regular columns of interest:
  - "Archaeopolitics" occasionally carries relevant items on policy & polictics
  - "Working Together" carries articles about crossing the boundaries between "professional" archaeology and other realms, such as partnerships with Native Americans
  - "From the Ethics Committee" is a new feature starting in Vol 16, and will be published three times a year by the Society for American Archaeology's Standing Committee on Ethics (see below)
* "River, Rocks, and Time" is a regular feature, a blog by Deb Twigg, Executive Director of the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies (SRAC). She regularly touches on the ethics of archaeology and the sale of artifacts

For a mixed perspective, see:
* (HOT!) the Anthropology in the News Website for its linked newspaper headlines and search its archives.
* Boston Globe OnLine -- search using the keyword: ANTIQUITIES
* IFAR Journal (previously IFAR Reports) with "articles on topics important to those in fine arts such as authentification cases, legal problems, art thefts and recoveries, and cultural property issues".
* The Glyph, newsletter of the Archaeological Institute of America San Diego Society, ran a special issue in September of 1997, called "Pot-diggers: Property Rights, and Public Interest - A Debate" with Jeff Meek: "Private Property Rights and the Value of Archaeological Artifacts" and Robert J. Jeske: "Who Owns the Artifacts?" (listed below).
* Common Ground, published free by the National Park Service Archaeology and Ethnography Program has a regular section entitled "Site Watch: Protecting the Nation's Archaeological Heritage", as well as occasional featured articles of interest; for example, the 1996, volume 1, number 3/4, "Contested Waters" special issue on Underwater Archaeolog, carried articles discussing preservation archaeology versus salvage, sport diving, and looting.
* Boston Globe (see a link to their online version below). This newspaper occasionally carries stories about scandals in the art & museum community.
* International Journal of Cultural Property
new journal from Cambridge University Press, "a vital international, and multidisciplinary forum for the broad spectrum of views surrounding cultural property, cultural heritage, and related issues. Its mission is to develop new ways of dealing with cultural property debates, to be a venue for the proposal or enumeration of pragmatic policy suggestions, and to be accessible to a wide audience of professionals, academics, and lay readers. This peer-reviewed journal publishes original research papers, case notes, documents of record, chronicles, conference reports, and book reviews."
[receive table of contents alerts via email]
* Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony (ISSN 1827-8868)
Free online journal will address protection, the conservation and the valorization of international cultural heritage (archaeology, art history, law, architecture, archival and librarian property, etc.), tangible and intangible. English, Italian, French or Spanish, with abstract in Italian and English -- expect the first issue by May of 2006.

For a perspective from the side of the collectors, see:
* Indian-Artifact Magazine tends to carry editorials, letters, and short articles which exemplify or state the collector's view.
* Treasure Quest Magazine tends to carry editorials, letters, and short articles which exemplify the salvor or collector's view.

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

C. Books & Articles
Published books and articles, including online publications.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


NEW! 04/05/19 2019 Norway's Kon-Tiki museum to return Easter Island artefacts. BBC News March 29, 2019 Online at
- "Norway has agreed to return thousands of artefacts taken from Chile's Easter Island by renowned Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl in 1956. The agreement was signed by his son on behalf of Oslo's Kon-Tiki museum and Chile's culture ministry in Santiago. The artefacts include carved pieces and human bones from the Pacific island."
2019 Cadbury treasure hunt ad labelled 'stupid' by archaeologists. BBC News March 17, 2019 Online at:
- "Archaeologists have labelled a Cadbury advertising campaign urging children to go on a real treasure hunt as 'intensely stupid.' The campaign calls on children to "grab a metal detector" and dig holes looking for gold or treasure. However, Dr Aisling Tierney, an archaeologist at Bristol University, said people could be prosecuted for digging without permission. Cadbury's said it did not condone the breaking of existing rules. It said it was 'in the process' of updating its website to make this clear."
2019 Piece of sacred meteorite returned to Grand Ronde Tribe. ABC.57 News Online at
- "A ceremony was held Friday morning at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum as a small piece of a sacred meteorite [named Tomanowos] was returned to the people of the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde."
2018 Dutch salvage company fined millions for illegally scrapping WWI shipwreck. 9news August 22, 2018 Online at:
- "A Dutch salvage company has been slapped with a fine of nearly $435 million by a crown court in the UK for illegally scrapping a WWI-era shipwreck in the Celtic Sea. In August 2016, the Dutch-registered salvage ship Friendship was found by the Royal Navy vessel HMS Severn lifting steel and copper from ... the wreck of the SS Harrovian, a steamship that was sunk by a German U-boat during WWI."
(HOT!) 2018 Reward rises to $20K for info leading to stolen artifacts. (Plainview Daily Herald) July 7, 2018 . Online at:
- The reward for information leading to the recovery of artifacts stolen from Moundville Archaeological Park decades ago is now $20,000. 264 pottery vessels and other artifacts were stolen from the Erskine Ramsay Archaeological Repository in 1980, with an appraised value around $1 million.
2018 US Court: Shipwreck Found off Florida Belongs to France. US News July 7, 2018. Online at:
- A U.S. federal court has ruled that the shipwreck of la Trinite off Florida's Atlantic coast belongs to France and not salvage company Global Marine Exploration which found it in 2016. The ruling hinged on accurate identification of the ship.
2015 Syrian archaeologist 'killed in Palmyra' by IS militants. BBC News August 19, 2015. Online at
- Khaled al-Asaad, "The archaeologist who looked after ancient ruins of Palmyra in Syria for 40 years is reported to have been killed by Islamic State (IS) militants.... [ISIS] militants had tried to extract information from him about where some of Palmyra's treasures had been hidden to save them from destruction..." (Website includes many links to related articles about ISIS and the battle for Syria.)
particularly (HOT!) 2015 Mystery-Shrouded Ice Age Artifacts Find Home in Anthropology Museum. Popular Archaeology Vol. 18 Spring 2015. Posted Wed. Apr. 22, 2015. Online at:
- The .Berlin Collection., a group of purportedly prehistoric figurines and other artifacts, will be the subject of learning, further study and research aftering being donated to the Logan Museum of Anthropology at Beloit College in Beloit, Wisconsin, where they will reside as part of the museum.s permanent collection.
2015 Greece condemns British refusal of mediation on Parthenon sculptures. Hurriyet Daily News March 30, 2015. Online at:
- "Greece on Saturday criticised the "negativism" of the British Museum in rejecting mediation by UNESCO to help resolve the decades-old dispute over returning ancient Parthenon sculptures to Athens."
2014 Trio buried alive hunting Paraguay treasure. Agence France-Presse May 5, 2014. Online:
- three men were irretrievably trapped underground after a cave-in while illegally digging for gold believed lost during the 1864-1870 War of the Triple Alliance
(HOT!) n.d. The Parthenon Sculptures. Press release by the British Museum. Viewed January 27, 2010. Available online:
- "Periodically, the question of where the surviving sculptures from the Parthenon should now be displayed becomes a subject of public discussion. This page provides key information for understanding the complex history of the Parthenon and its sculpture. The main arguments of the debate are also presented here. For another view, see the website of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture" [Also see the British Committee for the Reunification of the Parthenon Marbles, online at]
- Includes a link to "The Parthenon Sculptures: the position of the Trustees of the British Museum". Available online:
2013 Bulldozers destroy Mayan pyramid in Belize. Online at:
- "A construction company has essentially destroyed one of Belize's largest Mayan pyramids with backhoes and bulldozers to extract crushed rock for a road-building project, authorities announced on Monday."
2013 US tourist faces trial in Turkey over 'stones'. News Daily April 17, 2013. Online at
- "US tourist who says he picked up stones on Turkish beach faces smuggling charges."
2013 Thieves steal artifacts from Jbeil archaeology museum. The Daily Star (Lebanon) March 19, 2013. Online at:
- "Thieves broke into an archaeological museum and stole 30 small artifacts in a daring overnight raid in the town of Jbeil [Lebanon]."
(multimedia available) 2012 Looted Afghan artefacts returned to Kabul. BBC News - Asia 5 August 2012. Online:
- "Hundreds of archaeological artefacts looted from Afghanistan have been handed over to the country's national museum during a ceremony in the Afghan capital, Kabul. Many of the 843 pieces were stolen during Afghanistan's civil war in the 1990s and ended up on the black market.... The British Museum in London has helped to complete their return. Some of the stolen artefacts were recovered by British border forces and police, while others were found in private collections and bought back by generous donors."
2010 Yale Will Return Machu Picchu Artifacts. Inside Higher Ed Quick Takes November 22, 2010. Online:
- "Alan Garcia, president of Peru, announced on Friday that Yale University has committed to return a collection of artifacts from Machu Picchu in early 2011 -- possibly ending years of negotiations and legal threats over the pieces, which were taken by a Yale team that excavated the area a century ago. Peru has long disputed Yale's assertions that the artifacts were taken legally...."
(HOT!) 2010 Stolen Holocaust art database launched. BBC News 18 October 2010. Online:
- "A new online database lets Holocaust survivors and their relatives search details of more than 20,000 artworks stolen from Jews during World War II."
2010 Missing Iraqi antiquities located in PM Maliki's office. BBC News September 20, 2010. Online:
- "The ... artefacts... had been smuggled out of Iraq at various times and ended up in the US. They were moved back to Iraq in early 2009 but went missing after that. Antiquities Minister Qahtan al-Jubouri blamed "inappropriate handover procedures" for their disappearance."
2010 U.S. returns 'cultural treasures' to Iraq CNN World February 25, 2010. Online:
- "The United States gave Iraq a bit of its long history back Thursday in the form of ancient golden earrings, an old Roman coin, a rifle emblazoned with Saddam Hussein's image and more...."
2009 Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference. (special edition of) MUSEUM International No.241-2
- chapters include repatriation Case Studies (Great Zimbabwe Bird; Greenland's cultural heritage; Ngarrindjeri Ancestral Remains; Axum Obelisk; a Sumerian Statue; Kwakwaka'wakw Mask); Ethical and Legal Aspects; Mediation and Cultural Diplomacy; Museum, Site and Cultural Context; International Coopertaion and Research.
2009 ICE and CBP return 334 pre-Columbian artifacts to Peruvian government. US Immigrations and Customs Enforcement February 11, 2009. Online:
- "Officials from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) on Wednesday returned to the Peruvian government 334 pre-Columbian artifacts that were seized in 2007 following an ICE-led investigation..."
2008 Iraqi artefacts return to Baghdad BBC News 9 June 2008. Online:>
- "The Iraqi antiquities department has taken delivery of 11 ancient ceremonial seals that were looted after the US-led invasion of the country in 2003. Originally from the national museum, the artefacts, some of which date from 3,000BC, were seized by US customs officials in the city of Philadelphia."
2007 Whose Treasure Is It Really? New York Times (editorial) September 4, 2007 Online:
- discusses legal battles over the looting of a shipwreck, presumed to be the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes sunk in 1804 off Portugal -- suggests the treasure should really go back to Latin America
2007 Lost treasure 'found' Globe and Mail Science July 26, 2007. Online:
- chance find of 12th Century shipwreck - fortune in china will be turned over to the Korean government
2007 Shipwreck Yields Estimated $500 Million Haul. NY Times online. May 18 2007. Online:
begins: " Deep-sea explorers said Friday they have hauled up what could be the richest sunken treasure ever discovered: hundreds of thousands of colonial-era silver and gold coins worth an estimated $500 million from a shipwreck in the Atlantic Ocean."
- presumed to be from a known 17th Century shipwreck that sank in international waters off England
anonymous (HOT!)
2004 What's been said about the Marbles. BBC News Viewed: September 13, 2007. Online:
- "Centuries of arguments over the Parthenon sculptures reveal a bewildering variety of views." (a series of quotes on the controversial Elgin Marbles from a wide range of sources on all sides)
2004 Stolen relics go home to Egypt BBC News Friday, 15 October, 2004. Online:
- "More than 600 Egyptian antiquities flew back to Egypt from the UK on Thursday, four years after they were stolen and smuggled out."
2003 Egypt's 'Ramses' mummy returned BBC News Sunday, 26 October, 2003. Online:
- "An ancient Egyptian mummy thought to be that of Pharaoh Ramses I has returned home after more than 140 years in North American museums." (also briefly mentions Rosetta Stone in the British Museum and the bust of Nefertiti still in the Berlin Museum)
2000 Archaeologist exposed as fraud. BBC News online. Nov 5 2000. Online:
begins: "A leading Japanese archaeologist has admitted planting artefacts at an excavation site so he could claim credit for discovering his country's oldest stoneware."
2000 Watery Graves. The Economist. April 29.
- "When Turkey's Birecik dam begins filling up at the end of the month, thousands of archaeological treasures are likely to be lost. Does anyone care?" A new dam on the Euphrates will soon flood at least 82 sites, some dating back at least to the Palaeolithic, as well as the nine villages, with thousands of inhabitants.
2000 Emergency import restriction imposed on Khmer stone archaeological material. SAA Bulletin 18(1):29
1999 Caribbean Graveyard of Shipwrecks May Be Sacked by Treasure Hunters. CNN News (AP) Apr. 20, 1999 2:06 pm GMT. Online:
- Controversy over rare 17th Century French and pirate shipwrecks off Venezuela's Las Aves archipelago in the Caribbean. Treasure hunters have obtained a government permit to salvage, but marine archaeologists protest.
1997 El Cayo Ordeal in Chiapas. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute Newsletter 24: 2-4
1997 The Problem of Pillage.
- A short statement, "from the Senate Report No. 97-564 on Implementing Legislation for the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Cultural Property. Online: in the USIA site
1991 World Archaeological Congress first code of ethics. World Archaeological Bulletin 5:22-23.
- The WAC's code of ethics.
1985 Israeli archaeologists support sale of artifacts. Biblical Archaeology Review 11(4): 8.
- Some archaeologists support sale of surplus artifacts to raise money.
Adams, E. Charles
1984 Archaeology and the Native American: A Case at Hopi. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 236-242. New York: The Free Press.
- This article details the responsibilities to the public for archaeologists.
Ahrens, Klaus
1993 Diebe, Hehler und Moneten. pp. 62-66, Geo Special: Die Welt der Maya.
Akbar, Arifa
2008 Stelios in bid to reunite Elgin Marbles The Independent 14 June 2008. Online:
- "Stelios Haji-Ioannou, the founder of the budget airline easyJet, is due to launch a one-man campaign to reunite the Elgin Marbles by taking out a series of full-page advertisements in national newspapers across Britain next week."
Akin, Marjorie
2016 Moving forward. In Numismatic Archaeology of North America. Taylor and Francis
- has a review of the looting question with suggestions for both archaeologists and coin collectors for collaboration rather than confrontation
1996 Passionate Possession: The Formation of Private Collections. In Learning from Things: Method and Theory in Material Culture Studies, edited by W. D. Kingery, pp. 102-128. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
- psychology of collecting
Alexander, B.
1990 Archaeology and looting make a volatile mix. Science 250:1074-1075.
- This raises ethical questions regarding use of date from looted sites or commercial excavations. It is partly a critique of Donnan's National Geographic publication on looted Moche material (listed below).
Anderson, David G. and Virginia Horak (editors)
1994 Site Destruction in Georgia and the Carolinas. Readings in Archeological Resource Protection Series No. 2. Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee, FL.
- This collection includes papers on natural (hurricanes, waves, erosion, fire) and human (agriculture, clear-cutting, pot hunting, vandalism, grave desecration, archaeologists) damage to archaeological sites.
Andrews, Stefan
2019 Ancient Babylonian Artifact Seized at London Airport Returns to Iraq Vintage News March 17, 2019 Onine at:
- "British officials intercepted an artifact smuggler at Heathrow airport who was attempting to sneak a valuable ancient stone into the UK.... [the Kudurru, or boundary stone, from ancient Babylon] is believed to have been illegally excavated from an archaeological site in southern Iraq."
Arbeiter, Dennis
2000 "The Atlas Spear." Prehistoric Antiquities and Archaeological News Quarterly 20(4):4.
- enormous price paid for stone tool
Archaeological Institute of America
1974 (1973 resolution) Bulletin of Archaeological Institute of America 65:30.
- The AIA Council resolved to exclude presentations based on artifacts acquired in contravention of UNESCO 1970 convention.
Arnold, J. Barto III
1978 Underwater cultural resources and the antiquities market. Journal of Field Archaeology 5(2):232-3.
- This "Antiquities Market" section addresses US battle over control of historic shipwrecks in public waters as well as suggests artifacts should remain in the public domain and not in private hands.
Arriola, Miguel S. V.
1987 Anotaciones sobre depredación arqueológica en Guatemala. Memoirias del Primer Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas. pp. 393-400. Instituto de Investigaciones Filológicas, Centro de Estudios Mayas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
Arriola, Miguel S.V.
1988, Depredación arqueológica en Guatemala. Anales de la Academia de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala 61: 219-233
Aruz, Joan
2009 The impact and significance of the statue of Ur-Ningirsen. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
- repatriation of a Sumerian Statue
Association of Field Archaeology
n.d. (constitutional note) Journal of Field Archaeology inside cover.
- Publishers of Journal of Field Archaeology constitution and bylaws (Article II) state their "opposition to the dealing and the illicit traffic in such [looted] materials".
Atwood, Roger
2004 Stealing History: Tomb Raiders, Smugglers, and the Looting of the Ancient World. St. Martin's Press
- Well-received, popular account of the looting of Moche royal tombs in Sipan, Peru. From Publisher's Weekly, "part detective story and part history lesson, Atwood, an expert on the antiquities market who writes for ARTnews and Archaeology, focuses on one incident as a case study of the insidious effects of the illicit antiquities trade"
Australian Archaeological Association
1994 Code of ethics of the Australian Archaeological Association. Australian Archaeology 1994(39):129
- The code of ethics of the major Australian archaeological society.


Badcock, James
(HOT!) 2016 Spaniard jailed for destroying Neolithic cave to make an animal shelter. The Telegraph November 13, 2016. Online:
- "Spanish businessman has been sentenced to two and half years in prison for the destruction of an archaeological site which experts say held the key to the secrets of human life in Neolithic Spain.... Victorino Alonso was found guilty of a 'crime against heritage' by ordering the use of mechanical diggers to widen a cave in the Pyrenees.... The multimillionaire mine operator... used the site as a shelter and feeding site for animals on the surrounding hunting estate, run by a company owned by Mr Alonso."
Ballenger, Jesse
1999 Goff Creek: Artifact Collection Strategy and Occupation Prehistory on the Southern High Plains, Texas County, Oklahoma. Oklahoma Museum of Natural History and Oklahoma Anthropological Society Memoir 8
- Surface collecting from an archaeologist's perspective.
Bambury, Brent
2015 (multimedia available) 10 historical sites destroyed by ISIS and why they matter. CBC Radio: Day Six. March 13, 2015. Online at
- ISIS has destroyed parts of the UNESCO World Herritage Sites of the ancient cities of Khorsabad, Nineveh, Nimrud, and Hatra. At Day Six's site you can listen to Brent Bambury's interview with Amr Al-Azm who is working with a group dubbed the Syria's Monuments Men, an anonymous group of archaeologists, curators, and activists who tread into dangerous territory to document what's been lost and try to preserve sites in danger. Also here is a list of some of what's been lost.
Banks, Alan
1992 Editorial -- Surface Finds Central States Archaeological Journal 39(3): 108
- comments on the lkegality of surface collecting
Barboza, David, Graham Bowley, & Amanda Cox
(HOT!) 2013 Forging an Art Market in China. New York Times. Online at:
- "...the [Chinese art] market is flooded with forgeries, often mass-produced, and has become a breeding ground for corruption, as business executives curry favor with officials by bribing them with art." The forgeries include fake historic relics as well as looted/stolen objects. The authors describe a series of modern centers that specialize in reproducing historic relics, including paintings, bronzes, pottery, and even carved jade.
Barker, Alex W.
(HOT!) 2003 Archaeological Ethics: Museum and Collections, in Ethical Issues in Archaeology by Zimmerman, Vitelli and Hollowell-Zimmer. AltaMira Press, pp. 71-83.
- (This volume is from the SAA Ethics Committee.) "Barker covers a wide range of issues ranging from purchase of looted artifacts and its role in site destruction to proper care of collections." (HOT!)
2000 Ethics, e-commerce, and the future of the past. SAA Bulletin 18(1):15 Online:
- about online sale of artifacts (including auction sites) and their impact on cultural heritage and the antiquities market
Barnard, Anne
(multimedia available) 2015 ISIS Onslaught Engulfs Assyrian Christians as Militants Destroy Ancient Art. New York Times Feb. 26, 2015. Online at:
- "An Islamic State video showed the militants smashing statues with sledgehammers inside the Mosul Museum, in northern Iraq, that showcases recent archaeological finds from the ancient Assyrian empire. The relics include items from the palace of King Sennacherib, who in the Byron poem .came down like the wolf on the fold. to destroy his enemies..."
Barry, Ellen and Nida Najar
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2015 Nepal's Cultural Heritage Becomes Its Scrap as Human Crisis Takes Priority After Earthquake. New York Times April 28, 2015. Online:
- "In the three days since a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck [Katmandu]Nepal... in many places, the detritus of centuries-old temples and palaces has been left unguarded, diminishing chances to eventually rebuild one of the world.s largest clusters of cultural heritage sites."
- "Officials said that the issue of looting had taken on more urgency in the past several days, but each seemed to hold another agency responsible for securing the sites."
Bass, George F.
1979 The men who stole the stars. Sea History 12:30-?.
- (This item may contain relevant information on archaeological professionalism, but I have not yet been able to examine a copy.)
Bass, George F. (HOT!)
1985 Archaeologists, sport divers, and treasure hunters. Journal of Field Archaeology 12(2):256-258.
- From the 'Perspectives' section: "The following letter was written in support of [US] federal legislation..."; the legislation was Senate Bill 1504 and H.R. 3194, and apparently was going to restrict private / commercial access to shipwrecks. Bass notes a variety of collector / "treasure-hunter"'s concerns, and archaeological views about them.
Bator, Paul M.
1996 The International Trade in Art, Second Edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- This was originally "An Essay on the International Trade in Art", published in Stanford Law Review 1982 34(2). It defines illegal trade in an international sense, and also discusses relevant factors such as preservation of archaeological and national values, and the objects' own integrity.
Beard, Mary (HOT!)
2009 Lord Elgin - Saviour or Vandal? BBC Online. November 5, 2009. Online at:
- "Much of the sculpture that once enhanced the Parthenon in Athens was brought to London by Lord Elgin 200 years ago. Was this the act of a saviour or a vandal? Mary Beard looks at both sides of a fierce argument."
Beeby, Dean
2018 Ottawa ended up giving the U.K. far more of the Franklin artifacts than expected. CBC News Jun 12, 2018 Online at:
- "After lengthy negotiations, Canada handed over to Britain in April every historical artifact that Parks Canada divers had retrieved from the wreck of HMS Erebus, the long-lost ship of 19th-century Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. CBC News has learned that Parks Canada was hoping to hang on to the Franklin artifacts... The ownership issue has been fraught because of the 1999 Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, which gave Inuit ownership of all archaeological sites and artifacts inside Nunavut. Parks Canada launched the talks with Britain in May 2016 without Inuit participation, and with the Nunavut ownership issue unresolved."
Belk, Roger
1988 Collectors and Collecting. Advances in Consumer Research 15:548-553. Reprinted in Interpreting Objects and Collections, edited by Susan M. Pearce, 1994, pp. 317-326. Routlege, London and New York.
- psychology of collecting
Bell, Malcolm
2011 The Beautiful and the True: Encouraged by dealers and collectors, art museums were long willing to overlook the looting of antiquities. Wall Street Journal July 2, 2011. Online:
- This short article warns of the loss of cultural context that occurs through looting and subsequent 'laundering' in museum collections, and then briefly reviews the book Chasing Aphrodite by Jason Felch and Ralph Frammolino.
Bell, M. and P. Pelagatti (editors)
1995 Antichità senza provenienza. Atti della tavola rotonda. Bolletino d'Arte, allegato al n. 89-90.
- Publication of the first of two international conferences, some of whose papers are relevant (see Lyons 1998 below)
Benjamin, Shane
2004 Archaeological looter sentenced to prison. The Durango Herald May 27, 2004. Online:
- "A Cortez woman who was caught almost four years ago disturbing a San Juan National Forest archaeological site was sentenced to eight months in prison Wednesday for failing to comply with conditions of her probation.... Woosley was serving two years of probation for digging up nearly 1,000-year-old bones of an ancestral Puebloan who lived on the site sometime between 950 and 1075."
Bernbeck, R.
2008 The Looting of the Iraq Museum, Baghdad: The Lost Legacy of Ancient Mesopotamia Near Eastern Archaeology 71(3): 189-?
Berner, John
1984 Artifact or Artifake? Central States Archaeological Journal 31(4):186-188.
Berner, John
1997 The Authenticators. Prehistoric American 31(4):10-11.
Berner, John
1997 Is it a Reproduction or a Fake? Prehistoric American 31(3):21.
Berner, John
1998 Advice for New collector/investors. Prehistoric American 32(3):3.
Berner, John
1998 Popularity of Reproduction Styles. Prehistoric American 32(3):10.
Berner, John
1998 Twentieth century reproductions/Fakes. Prehistoric American 32(3):16-17.
Berner, John
2000 American Indian Artifacts: Genuine or Reproduction. American Antiquities Inc, Roswell.
Berner, John
2000 Their Real Dream is to Fool the Experts. Prehistoric American 34(1):19
- a collector complains about fake stone tools and effects on market
Besterman, Tristram
2009 Returning a stolen generation. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Bieder, Robert E.
1990 "A Brief Historical Survey of the Expropriation of American Indian Remains." Typed manuscript, April 1990, available from Native American Rights Fund. Available for order online:
- Excellent overview of 19th and early 20th century intellectural issues surrounding physical anthropology, specimen collecting, and ethics.
Blacking, John
1953 Edward Simpson, alias 'Flint Jack': A Victorian Craftsman. Antiquity 27:207-211.
- early artifact faker
Blair, Elizabeth
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2011 From Beneath, A Smithsonian Shipwreck Controversy. NPR Morning Edition. Online: including audio file.
- The Smithsonian is under fire for panning to display artifacts from a shipwreck, some of which may have been collected by looters. The "ancient shipwrecked vessel off the coast of Indonesia's Belitung Island... is one of the most significant shipwrecks to be found in modern times... the only shipwreck to date that we have found which has direct archaeological evidence of trade between the Arab world and the Chinese world...". The museum's ethics policy prohibits knowingly exhibiting artifacts stolen or removed from commercially exploited sites.
Bleed, Peter
2000 Purveying the Past: Structure and Strategy in the American Antiques Trade. Plains Anthropologist 45(172):179-88.
- Study of the antiques trade in Lincoln, Nebraska, reveals four stage marketing channel (surfacing, picking, dealing, and matchmaking), each adding different kinds of value to objects and operating with distinctive strategies.
Block, Melissa
2009 Son 'Relieved' To Tell Cops Of Dad's Stolen Artifacts. NPR All Things Considered June 10, 2009. Online:
- "From the 1960s until his death in 2007, collectibles dealer John Sisto amassed the largest private collection of manuscripts, ancient books, artifacts and antiquities in his suburban Chicago home. Trouble is, much of it was stolen..."
Bohlen, Celestine
2002 Dealer Is Guilty of Selling Stolen Egyptian Art. New York Times (February 13) Online: article
- prominent antiquities dealer, Frederick Schultz, convicted for conspiring to sell ancient artifacts illegally removed from of Egypt
- subsequently appealed (details on AIA site)
Bogdanos, Matthew
2009 The thieves of Bagdad: a new way of looking at the unification of the Parthenon sculptures. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
2005 The Casualties of War: The Truth about the Iraq Museum American Journal of Archaeology 109: 477-526
Bogdanos, Matthew and William Patrick (eds.)
2006 Thieves of Baghdad: One Marine's Passion to Recover the World's Greatest Stolen Treasures. Bloomsbury USA
- from the publisher... "riveting account of Colonel Matthew Bogdanos and his team\222s extraordinary efforts to recover over 5,000 pricel ess antiquities stolen from the Iraqi National Museum after the American invasion of Baghdad"
- "Marine Corps Reserve colonel, lawyer and student of ancient civilizations, returned to uniform full-time to head counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan and later in Iraq, where Bogdanos gave himself the mission of finding antiquities that had been stolen from the Iraq National Museum during the American invasion." (from
Bonvillian, Crystal
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2019 FBI finds 2,000 human bones among antiquities seized from man’s home. Springfield News-Sun Feb 26, 2019 Online at:
- "an [FBI] investigation begun in 2014 that led agents to discover about 2,000 human bones...among an Indiana man’s stash of stolen antiquities from around the world.... Don Miller had about 42,000 items, including pre-Columbian pottery, Chinese items dating from around 500 BC and an Italian mosaic, inside his Waldron [Indiana] home.... A life-sized Chinese terra cotta figurine sat on his front porch and, in the basement, he kept an Egyptian sarcophagus..."
Bouchenaki, Mounir
2009 Return and restitution of cultural property in the wake of the 1970 Convention. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Bowes, Mark
2012 For battlefield thefts, man gets 366-day term. Richmond Times-Dispatch March 23, 2012. Online:
- John J. Santo, the most prolific (known) looter of Petersburg's National Battlefield Park in Virginia has been sentenced on two counts of damaging archaeological resources and one count of pillaging. He stole "more than 18,000 bullets, 68 fuses, 31 cannonballs and shells, 13 buckles, seven breastplates, five saber tips and 91 buttons over 1,014 days", and his own diary helped in his conviction.
Brent, Michael
1994 The rape of Mali. Archaeology 47(3):26-31,35.
- This item describes how "European collectors and dealers have systematically plundered the heritage of one of the world's poorest countries...".
Broad, William J.
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2014 X Still Marks Sunken Spot, and Gold Awaits. New York Times May 4, 2014. Online at:
- fascinating account of a shipwreck, sunken treasure (gold bars!), embezzlement, and legal nightmares... (SS Central America, Odyssey Marine Exploration, Thomas Thompson, Alison Antekeier)
- also listen to the podcast from NPR Radio audiofile:
Brodie, Neil
2009 Unwanted antiquities. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
2006 Smoke and Mirrors, in Who Owns Objects: the Ethics and Politics of Collecting Cultural Artefacts, edited by E. Robson, L. Treadwell, and C. Gosden. Oxford: Oxbow Books
Brodie, Neil, Jenny Doole, and Peter Watson
2000 Stealing History: The Illicit Trade in Cultural Material. Cambridge: The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. Commissioned by ICOM UK and Museums Association.
- A new report, "...provides an overview of the illicit trade in archaeological, ethnographic and palaeontological material, and the damage it causes, and makes recommendations for museums to protect them from buying illicit material, and for Her Majesty's Government to help stamp the trade out." (more details are available online.
Brodie, Neil et al.
2006: Archaeology, Cultural Heritage and the Antiquities Trade, University Prsss of Florida
Brodie, Neil and C. Renfrew
2005 Looting and the World's Archaeological Heritage: The Inadequate Response. Annual Review of Anthropology 34: 343-428
- overview
Brodie, Neil et al.
2001: Trade in Illicit Antiquities: The Destruction of the World's Archaeological Heritage, Cambridge
Brookbank, Sarah
2018 Kentucky 'grave robber' sentenced after trafficking Native American artifacts. Cincinnati Enquirer June 8, 2018. Online:
- "A Kentucky man who was described as a graverobber by federal prosecutors will serve time in prison after he bought and sold Native American artifacts, including to an undercover agent who was investigating him. Gary Womack, 60, of Woodburn, pleaded guilty to three felony violations of the federal Archaeological Resources Protection Act in March after a three-year investigation into his crimes."
Brown, James A.
1966 Spiro Studies vol 1: Description of the Mound Group. University of Oklahoma Research Institute, Norman.
- includes info on 1930s looting of famous site
Brown, Patricia Leigh
1999 New Orleans Grave Theft: Nothing's Sacred. New York Times Tuesday February 16, 1999: A1,16.
- Brown notes a growing problem in recent years, the theft of grave goods from modern cemetaries in the United States. Funerary statuary have been vanishing especially from New Orleans graveyards and ending up for sale in antique stores as far away as New York City and Los Angeles.
Browner, Tom
1992 The Art Gerber affair, the facts. Central States Archaeological Journal 39(2):58-60.
- This article details the Art Gerber case, involving destruction of a Hopewell mound in Indiana.
Bryan, Susan Montoya (HOT!)
2009 Fed crackdown puts tribal artifact dealers on edge The Fresno Bee Aug. 19, 2009. Online:
- "An intensifying federal investigation into the sale of Native American artifacts has brought fear and uncertainty to one of the nation's largest and longest-running Indian artifact shows. Wealthy collectors are more cautious about buying artifacts for fear of criminal liability, and reputable dealers say they're working double-time to prove their legitimacy after being wrongly lumped together with looters and gravediggers."
Bruhns, Karen Olsen (HOT!)
2000 Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 18(2):14-15, 17. (See
- about online sale of artifacts (including auction sites) and their impact on cultural heritage and the antiquities market
Buckley, Cara
2008 After 100 Years, Tribe’s Ancestors Head Home New York Times June 10, 2008. Online:
- "...The tribe’s quest to reclaim their ancestors began seven years ago, when Chief Jacks’s wife, Cora Jacks, found documents and papers relaying the life story of a 19th- and early 20th-century archaeologist, Harlan Ingersoll Smith. Ms. Jacks said she learned that Mr. Smith had robbed the graves of Tseycum ancestors, who were buried on Vancouver Island under giant boulders, and sold them to major American museums, and most likely others worldwide."
Burnham, Bonnie
1978 Art Theft: Its Scope, Its Impact, and Its Control. International Foundation for Art Research, Inc., New York.
- From Laura Pope Robbins: "This report resulted from a feasibility study done on the creation of a central art theft archive as a means of combating art theft. It is meant to be an analysis on whether a clearinghouse of information on stolen art objects would be an effective weapon against art theft, and an evaluation on the reception of such a clearinghouse by the law enforcement community as well as the art community. References are footnoted on a chapter-by-chapter basis and the full citations are included in a separate chapter. There are five appendices which include, art theft statistics, list of important worldwide art thefts: 1975 - 1977, museum surveys, art dealer surveys, and IFAR program information. There is no index."
Butt, Shafiq
1998 Stealing A Civilization. Peshawar Diplomat 8(6)
- This describes the theft of Gandhara antiquities in Pakistan.
Byrne, Denis
2016 The problem with looting: An alternative perspective on antiquities trafficking in Southeast Asia. Journal of Field Archaeology 41(3) 2016: 344-354
- "The 1950s and 1960s constitute a key moment in the history of the looting of archaeological sites in Southeast Asia. The emergence ... of a commodity market for antiquities such as pottery triggered a wave of illicit excavation of archaeological sites. Simultaneous with the trafficking of antiquities out of the Philippines and Thailand into the hands of private collectors and museums in the West.... This paper aims for a more nuanced approach to the geoeconomics of antiquities consumption."
Byron, Lord George Gordon
1812 Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Canto Two, xii and xii
- This famous passage refers to the looting of the Elgin Marbles: "... the last poor plunder from a bleeding land." Byron witnessed the damage being done to the Parthenon by Lord Elgin's workers while on holiday in Athens in 1809. The phrase "felt some portion" refers to some Greek workmen who dropped their loads because they felt them moving.
"But most the modern Pict's ignoble boast,
To rive what Goth, and Turk and Time hath spared;
Cold as the crags upon his native coast,
His mind as barren and his heart as hard,
Is he conceived, whose hand prepared,
Aught to displace Athena's poor remains;
Her sons too weak the sacred shrine to guard,
Yet felt some portion of their mother's pains,
And never knew til then the weight of Despot's chains."
Byron, Lord George Gordon
1818 the Curse of Minerva
- This work apparently has 18 stanzas of rage against Lord Elgin's looting of Parthenon marble scupltures. A sample follows:
"Daughter of Jove! In Britain's injur'd name,
A true-born Briton may the deed disclaim,
Frown not on England -- England owns him not;
Athena! No -- the plunderer was a Scot."


Cameron, Catherine
1997 The loss of cultural heritage - an international perspective. Nonrenewable Resources 6(2)
- This is a collection of papers on historic preservation, looting, and antiquities trafficking, including Karen Vitelli & Anne Pyburn (archaeology and development); Ricardo Elia (looting & antiquities); Stephen Lekson (museums & antiquities market); Roderick McIntosh, Boubacar Hama Diaby, & Tereba Togola (on indigeneous efforts to protect cultural objects); Mark Michael (on Archaeological Conservancy); Frederick Lange & Mario Molina (regional view Central American efforts to preserve cultural heritage). It is available from Diane Stolfi, Plenum Press - Journals Dept, 233 Spring St, New York, New York, USA 10013.
Carnett, Carol L.
1995 A Survey of State Statutes Protecting Archeological Resources. Archeological Assistance Study No. 3. National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division, and the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
- Robert Hicks "While this book is not aimed at law enforcers, it's the best state-by-state examination of archeological protection laws and includes criminal ones. Call NPS at 202-343-4101 to find out about availability of copies. Sells for around $5 each."
Carr, Gilly
2016 'Illicit antiquities'? The collection of Nazi militaria in the Channel Islands. World Archaeology 48(2): 254-266
- "This article explores the collection of Nazi or German militaria in the Channel Islands and the change in meaning that this practice has held for four generations of islanders from 1945 to the present day. Focusing on the role of children in building this trade in militaria, it examines why they have been the primary agents of collection and asks what meaning or value such objects hold for them. This article proposes the concept of 'inherited nostalgia' to explain the desire of the third and fourth generations for such objects. It also presents German militaria as 'postmemorial objects', and their display as a 'postmemorial project', as a way of understanding their meaning in this particular formerly occupied part of Europe."
Cart, Julie
2001 Looting Indian Grave Sites Is Big Business in Utah BLM agents fight continuing battle against robbers San Francisco Chronicle April 8: A9. Online:
brief summary of BLM battles against looters in Utah
Carver, M.
1996 On archaeological value. Antiquity 70:45-56.
- The abstract: "The allocation of archaeological resources in Europe has gradually shifted from state control to groups made up of developers, planners, community taxpayers and academics that debate the fate of archaeological sites. This trend has encouraged the development of a definition of archaeological value to help archaeologists champion their cause. The definition is aimed at promoting the archaeological resource as a research asset that should be stored as deposits rather than monuments."
Cassell, Joan and Sue-Ellen Jacobs (eds.) 1987 Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology. Special Publication 23. Washington: American Anthropological Association. Online:
- Contains a review essay, annotated bibliography, background on the AAA ethics committee, and a series of case scenarios.
Ceram, C.W. (editor)
1966 The World of Archaeology: The Pioneers Tell Their Own Story. Thames and Hudson, London. (republished as Hands on the Past: Pioneer Archaeologists Tell Their Own Story. by Alfred A. Knopf, New York.).
- Laura Pope Robbins: "An anthology meant to give as complete a survey as possible of the adventurous spirit of archaeology. Extracts, taken directly from the writings of known archaeologists, were chosen on the basis of what was interesting, however, when combined, the extracts give a view of the whole scope of archaeological discovery. Its purpose is not to be comprehensive, but to provide an overview of the scope of archaeological research, showing both the misdirections and the systematic. Extracts pertinent to the study of antiquities theft are "How to Steal Antiquities" and "Legalized Art Robbery."
Champa, Denise
2018 Missing Native American artifact returned to State Museum. The Chronicle Express July 14, 2018. Online at:
- An engraved pipe tomahawk, gifted in 1792 by President George Washington to Seneca Chief Cornplanter, is back at the New York State Museum in Albany. The treasure was stolen from the museum nearly 70 years ago.
Champe, J.L., D.S. Byers, C. Evans, et al.
1961 Four statements for archaeology. American Antiquity 27:137-139.
- Here archaeologists emphasise the importance of publishing their research.
Chan, Bryan
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2012 Ancient petroglyphs stolen near Bishop. Los Angeles Times November 20, 2012. Online:
- "At least four ancient petroglyphs were cut from cliffs at the Volcanic Tableland and dozens of others damaged in 'the worst act of vandalism ever seen' on federal lands in the area."
- also see this related story
Chaniotis, Angelos
2009 Cultural objects in cultural context: the contribution of academic institutions. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Chase, Arlen F., Diane Z. Chase, Harriot W. Topsey (HOT!)
1988 Archaeology and the ethics of collecting. Archaeology 41(1):56-60,87.
- This is an "essay" discussing the ethics of the collection of looted objects from an archaeological perspective.
Cheek, Annetta L. and Bennie C. Keel
1984 Value Conflicts in Osteo-Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 194-207. New York: The Free Press.
- This chapter discusses the responsibilities of archaeologists to the public.
Childs, Craig (HOT!)
2009 The Southwest's Good Ol' Artifact Boys LA Times June 15, 2009.
- op-ed "The federal action laid bare a little known culture of ordinary citizens who collect and sell human history." describing the conviction of habitual looters and pot hunters in the US Southwest (including James Redd and Steven Shrader who later both committed suicide in jail).
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Chippindale, Christopher
1995 Commercialization: the role of archaeological laboratories and collectors. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 80-83. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- The author notes how analysis by archaeologists and laboratories can elevate the commercial value of cultural artifacts.
Chippindale, Chris and David Gill
1993 Material and intellectual consequences of esteem for Cycladic figures. American Journal of Archaeology 97:601-59
Christensen, Kelley
2014 $1,000 offered for information on archaeological looting. The Montana Standard. February 19, 2014. Online at
- "The Bureau of Land Management is offering a $1,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person or persons responsible for looting archaeological sites on public lands near Dillon.... The BLM has ramped up its monitoring of such sites on public lands following a looting in August 2013 in Beaverhead County. In that case, a ranger came upon several people in the act of stealing projectile points and stone tools."
Christine, Caroline
(HOT!) 2018 A raid on an Italian artifact smuggling ring may have unlocked a vast forgery web. Document July 9, 2018. Online at:
- "The recent bust of one of Italy's oldest organized crime rings may have 'convulsive' impacts on the scholarly world of artifacts and forgeries.... 40 houses across the Italian regions of Sicily, Calabria, Piedmont, and Apulia, as well as Germany, the U.K., and Spain were raided as a four-year-long police sting to capture a criminal gang responsible for stealing $47m of archeological goods came to a head.... The Italian crime ring, which has been described as “very well organized” by the Europol, has been at large for several decades. Code-named Demetra, the operation involved more than 250 officers, who detained 23 suspects as a part of a crackdown of an international group responsible for the illegal excavation and trafficking of cultural goods."
Clément, Étienne
1995 A view from UNESCO African Arts 28(4):58.
- This is a discussion about the looting of Mali's cultural artifacts.
Clements, Forrest E.
1945 Historical Sketch of the Spiro Mound. Contributions of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation 14:48-68. New York.
- looting at Spiro
Clements, Forrest E. and Alfred Reed
1939 "Eccentric" Flints of Oklahoma. American Antiquity 5(1):27-30.
- early lithic fakes
Coffman, Michael S. (HOT!)
2003 How Government Regulations Threaten America July 25, 2003. Online:
- This article presents the 'other side' view from many academics, that "Since the 1970s, we are increasingly following another system of governance that is systematically destroying the very principle [property rights] that has made America the greatest nation in the history of the world."
Coggins, Clemency C.
1995 Illicit international traffic in ancient art: let there be light! International Journal of Cultural Property 4(1): 61-79.
Coggins, Clemency C.
1972 Displaced Maya sculpture. Estudios de Cultura Maya 8:15-24
Coggins, Clemency C.
1972 Archaeology and the Art Market. Science 175(4019):263-266
Coggins, Clemency
1969 Illicit traffic of pre-Columbian antiquities. Art Journal 29(1):94,96,98,114.
- Coggins describes the systematic looting of Mayan sites and details specific sites that have been targetted and objects that have been stolen.
Collyns, Dan
2008 Machu Picchu ruin 'found earlier' BBC News June 6,2008. Online:
- "A team of historians says the lost city of the Incas, Machu Picchu, in Peru was discovered more than 40 years earlier than previously thought and ransacked."
Letsch, Constanze and Kate Connoly
(HOT!) 2013 Turkey wages 'cultural war' in pursuit of its archaeological treasures. The Guardian January 21, 2013. Online:
- "Ankara accused of blackmailing museums into returning artefacts while allowing excavation sites to be destroyed."
Converse, Robert N.
1992 Editorial Central States Archaeological Journal 39(3):111 %& 114
comments on professionalism and collecting, reprinted from Ohio Archaeologist 42(1)
Cook, B.F.
1991 The archaeologist and the art market: policies and practice. Antiquity 64:533-537.
- The abstract: "The Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum sets out his view of where responsible museums and researchers should find a balance in the difficult matter of unprovenanced antiquities thay may be the spoils of recent looting."
Craib, Donald Forsyth (ed.)
2000 Topics in Culture Resource Law. Washington: Society for American Archaeology.
- 'explores a range of legal issues relating to control, protection, and regulation of cultural resources' [paraphrasing the publisher's blurb]
Croci, Giorgio
2009 From Italy to Ethiopia: the dismantling, transportation and re-erection of the Axum Obelisk. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Cummings, C.R.
1985 National professional standards and guidelines for underwater archaeology. In Underwater Archaeology: Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by J.P. Delgado, pp. 46-52. Society for Historical Archaeology, Ann Arbor, MI.
- This work lays out standards for underwater archaeology.
Cummings, C.R.
1986 A matter of ethics. In Underwater Archaeology: Proceedings of the 14th Conference on Underwater Archaeology, edited by C.R. Cummings, pp. 1-5. Fathom Eight, San Marino, CA.
- The author introduces the ethics of underwater archaeology.
Cunningham, Richard B.
1999 Archaeology, Relics, and the Law. Carolina Academic Press.
- a law textbook
Cuno, James
2008 Who Owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle over Our Ancient Heritage. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Curwood, Steve
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2017 Saving Bears Ears. Living on Earth. NPR air date: week of January 6, 2017. Online:
- In late 2016, President Obama, with the unprecedented cooperation of wo different tribes of the Ute People and the Zuni Tribe, and Hopi Nation and the Navajo Nation, designated one point three million acres of southeastern Utah in the Bears Ears region as a protected national monument, culminating efforts dating back to the 1930s. This an area of sacred value, including iconic sites such as Newspaper Rock. And as a compromise, it excludes the Abajo Mountains, a popular recreational area and source of water for Monticello, and another area that is a potential future uranium source.
- Includes some photos and a complete podcast interview with Jonathan Thompson, contributing editor for High Country News who closely followed this process.


Davis, Hester A.
1984 Approaches to Ethical Problems by Archaeological Organizations. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 13-21. New York: The Free Press.
- This provides some background information from the perspective of archaeological organizations to the ethics question.
Davis, Richard H.
1993 Indian art objects as loot. The Journal of Asian Studies 52(1):22-49
- Scholars seldom appreciate that museum objects looted from (Asian) cultures have a variety of semiological meanings, political (power to those who took them and subservience to their original owners) and religious.
De Angelo, G.
1992 Avocational archaeology in New York State. The Bulletin, Journal of the NYSAA 104:28-30.
- This article notes the strong role avocationalists have played in New York State's archaeology.
De Angelo, G.
1996 Archaeology in the Future: the Role of the Avocational. In A Golden Chronograph for Robert E. Funk edited by C. Lindner and E.V. Curtin, pp. 45-48. Occasional Papers in Northeastern Anthropology No. 15. Arcaheological Services, Bethlehem, CT
- This work describes the role avocationalists could play in the future of archaeology.
de Grunne, Bernard
1995 An art historical approach to the terracotta figures of the inland Niger delta African Arts 28(4):70-79,112.
- de Grunne describes looting of Mali's cultural artifacts.
Denton, Bryan
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2017 A Jewel in Syria Where .Ruins Have Been Ruined. by ISIS. New York Times April 4, 2016. Online:
- "A Times photographer traveled to Palmyra, Syria, to see what remained of its archaeological treasures after almost a year of Islamic State control." (photoessay)
Denzler, Frank
(HOT!) 2014 Investigation leads to F.B.I. seizure of private collection. Rushville Republican. April 4, 2014. Online at Also see earlier story 'Local collection being inventoried', dated April 2, 2014. Online at
- agents apparently worked with Mr. Miller to inventory his extensive international artifact collection and then repatriate some items
Dewar, Elaine
1997 Behind This Door. Toronto Life 31(7): 85-92.
- This controversial article looks at how Ontario archaeologists control access to site information and archive artifact collections.
Diab, Youssef
1999 Antiquities probe reels in big fish: Ex-director-general joins three others in detention. The Daily Star Online (Lebanon).
- Former Director General of Antiquities and three others arrested in context of antiquities thefts.
Donnan, C.B.
1991 Archaeology and looting: preserving the record. Science 251:498.
- This is a reply to Alexander's 1990 critique of his use of Moche data.
Donnan, Christopher B.
1990 Masterworks of art reveal a remarkable pre-Inca world. National Geographic 177(6):17-35.
- This is a very controversial publication about Moche artifacts, representing Donnan's work in a frequently looted region, on previously looted as well as unlooted tombs often full of extremely valuable artifacts. Critics feel he is adding context and thus value to the art dealers and collectors plunder.
Dorfman, John
1998 " Getting their hands dirty? Archaeologists and the looting trade" Lingua Franca 8(4):28.
- Dorfman discusses the opposing views of where archaeologists should stand on the use of looted artifact collections.
Dunnell, Robert C.
1984 The Ethics of Archaeological Significance Decisions. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp.62-74. New York: The Free Press.
- Dunnell, a very well know figure in American archaeology, discusses the responsibilities of archaeologists to their profession.
Dupree, Nancy Hatch
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 1998 Museum Under Siege: Full Text. Archaeology - Online Features. April 20, 1998. Online:
- Comprehensive coverage of information about Afghan looting, including a list of artifacts among the stolen or imperiled treasures of the National Museum in Kabul, and a map of archaeological sites whose artifacts formed the collections.
Dyson, Stephen L.
1997 Archaeology De Damned. Archaeology 50(1):6
- In this editorial, the president of the Archaeological Institute of America notes the relationship between archaeologists and major dam projects which threaten cultural heritage sites..


Eakin, Hugh
(HOT!) 2013 The Great Giveback (op ed). New York Times January 26, 2013. Available online:
- "Since 2006, more than 100 statues, bronzes, vases, mosaics and other works have left public collections in the United States...." Museums state their motive is to shore up relations with these countries, to encourage continued sharing of antiquities and access to archaeoogical research sites. The museums also claim these restitutions help to prevent antiquities thefts but there is no indication that is true. Interestingly, few of these returns is based on legal action, instead they are frequently pre-emptive tactics, well in advance of any court case, and the visibility of the restitutions has actually encouraged more claims by foreign governments, as well as invocation of mutual legal assistance treaties with the U.S. where American custom officials and federal prosecutors pursue objects in American museums even without a formal legal ruling.
Early, Ann M.
1989 Profiteers and Public Archaeology: Antiquities Trafficking in Arkansas. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.39-50. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- This piece includes some case studies from the "victim's perspectives" of looting.
Edsel, Robert
2011 Travel with Rick Steves Radio Show Talking About the Monuments Men. Robert Edsel's Blog February 18th, 2011. Viewed Mar 4, 2011. Online at:
- "Robert Edsel is talking about the Monuments Men on Travel With Rick Steves radio program this weekend. He is chatting with an original Monuments Men, Harry Ettlinger, a German-born Jew whose family escaped to America and now helps repatriate the treasures of Europe from caves and castles where plunder was stashed."
- Rick Steve's podcast can be heard online here:
Edwards, Jennifer
(HOT!) 2012 Spike TV Network crew finds 'Spanish gold' in backyard. The St. Augustine Record February 26, 2012. Available online:
- Briefly describes an episode of a new cable television show "American Digger" on SpikeTV. "Savage and Spike TV declined to say where they were able to dig, other than that it was private property. City of St. Augustine Archaeologist Carl Halbirt called the digging 'almost like sacrilege" and "like a thief of time". Host and former wrestler Ric "Savage said he takes a few moments to appreciate whatever is found, then sells it to local antique shops".
Ehrenhard, John E. (editor)
1990 Coping With Site Looting: Southeastern Perspectives. Readings in Archeological Resource Protection Series No. 1. Southeast Archeological Center, Tallahassee, FL.
- This collected volume contains a number of items on how archaeologists in the US have coped with looting. (If anyone has access to a full table of contents, I would appreciate a copy!)
Elia, Ricardo J.
2009 Preventing looting through the return of looted archaeological objects in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
1997 Looting, Collecting, and the Destruction of Archaeological Resources. Nonrenewable Resources 6 (2): 85-98
- Elia provides a general discussion of collecting artifacts from an archaeological perspective.
1997 Florida Treasure Hunters Fined. Archaeology 50(6):22.
- This is a brief account of the successful conviction of looters.
1997 New Import Agreements. Archaeology 50(5):26.
- Ricardo details some of the new import restrictions on cultural artifacts. (HOT!)
1996 "A Seductive and Troubling Work." Review of The Cycladic Spirit: Masterpieces from the Nicholas P. Goulandris Collection by Colin Renfrew; reprinted in Archaeological Ethics edited by K.D. Vitelli, pp. 54-61. Altamira Press, London. (originally published in Archaeology 1993 46(1):64,66-69)
- This is a controversial critique of Renfrew's book. It protests that publishing Cycladic figurine information encourages looting and manufacturing of fakes.
1996 Getty gets Fleischman Collection. Archaeology 49(5):28.
- short account about the Getty Museum receiving the personal collection of a controversial collector.
1995 "Conservators and Unprovenanced Objects: Preserving the Cultural Heritage or Servicing the Antiquities Trade?" in Antiquities, Trade or Betrayed: Legal, Ethical, and Conservation Issues edited by Kathryn W. Tubb, pp. 244-255. Archetype, London.
- This piece notes how the action of professionals can add value to looted artifacts.
1995 Greece v. Ward: The Return of Mycenaean Artifacts. International Journal of Cultural Property 4(2):119-128
- This describes the return of looted cultural treasures to Greece.
1995 "A Comment." In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990s, edited by Mark J. Lynott and Alison Wylie, pp. 77-79. Society for American Archaeology Special Report, Washington, D.C.
- This is a short comment on archaeological ethics.
1995 Coin Funds Collapse. Archaeology 48(1):16.
- This is a discussion of coins as collected artifacts. (HOT!)
1994 The world cannot afford many more collectors with a passion for antiquities. The Art Newspaper 41:19-20.
- This notes that that the cultural heritage of many countries is being permanently lost due to looting.
1994 A Corruption of the Record. Archaeology 47(3):24-25.
- The Getty Kouros Colloquium was conducted to verify the authenticity and prevent scandal over the $9 million purchase of a (forged) artifact. No conclusions were reached, nor did it reveal how the marble kouros was purchased from looters. (HOT!)
1993 Ricardo Elia responds. Archaeology 46(3):17
- This piece was written in response to a response by Colin Renfrew in Archaeology 1993 46(3):16-18. (Elia's paper which began the debate was reprinted - see Elia 1996 below.)
1992 U.S. v. Mel Fisher. Archaeology 45(6):26-27.
- A short description of the trial of an infamous collector and looter.
1992 The ethics of collaboration: archaeologists and the Whydah Project. Historical Archaeology 24(2):105-117.
- Elia brings up ethical questions regarding use of date from looted sites or commercial excavations.
1991 Popular archaeology and the antiquities market: a review essay. Journal of Field Archaeology 18:95-103.
- Elia discusses Minerva: the International Review of Ancient Art and Archaeology, a glossy "new", British, popular journal that covers art and artifacts, but appears to blend the lines between art history, archaeology, and art collecting, and carries many ads for artifacts....
1991 U.S. Bans Import of Artifacts from Peten, Guatemala. Society for American Archaeology Bulletin 9(5):2.
- A short piece describing this important step at reducing looting in Central America.
1991 New York Gallery Sued. Archaeology 44(6):20-21.
- Elia describes how an important gallery was sued for selling looted artifacts.
1990 Crackdown on Smuggling. Archaeology 43(5):14.
- A brief article on attempts at limiting the smuggling of cultural artifacts.
Elkins, Nathan T.
2009 Treasure Hunting 101 in America's Classrooms. Journal of Field Archaeology 34.4: 482-489
2008 A Survey of the Material and Intellectual Consequences of Trading in Undocumented Ancient Coins: A Case Study on the North American Trade. Frankfurter elektronische Rundschau zur Altertumskunde 7: 1-13. Available online:
2008 A Long Legacy of Protecting Cultural Heritage SAFE CORNER Monday, June 16, 2008. Saving Antiquities for Everyone. Online:
- editorial blog and associated comments: " The AIA has a long legacy of supporting efforts to protect cultural heritage from destruction."
2008 'Dilettanti and Shopmen': Divergent Interests in Looting and Cultural Heritage Issues. Numismatics and Archaeology Wednesday, May 7, 2008. Online:
- editorial blog and associated comments: "Museums are beginning to understand the issues and concerns and are increasingly taking steps to avoid dealing in illicitly excavated and traded antiquities. However, there are still some holdouts from that community who have argued against efforts designed to protect archaeological sites and the destruction of information for commercial profit."
Ellis, H. Holmes
1940 A Study of the Oklahoma Eccentric Flints. Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 49(2):120-127.
- early lithic fakes
Erbil, Ömer
2019 NEW! 05/16/19 Plunder of Troy artifacts worse than estimated: Experts. Hurriyet Daily News May 15, 2019. Online at:
- "The number of artifacts unearthed in the ancient city of Troy and smuggled out of the country may be 10 times higher than previously estimated, according to a document recently found in the Ottoman archive.... In his book 'Ilios' published in 1881, Schliemann claimed that the total number of the smuggled artifacts was 8,833."
Estrin, Daniel ("TANN")
2013 Dead Sea Scroll fragments up for sale. archaeology News Network. May 25, 2013. Online at
- "Parts of the Dead Sea Scrolls are up for sale - in tiny pieces. Nearly 70 years after the discovery of the world's oldest biblical manuscripts, the Palestinian family who originally sold them to scholars and institutions is now quietly marketing the leftovers - fragments the family says it has kept in a Swiss safe deposit box all these years...."
Ewing, Douglas C.
1989 What is "Stolen"? The McClain Case Revisited. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.177-184. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- This article discusses different perceptions and conditions on cultural property regulations.
Eyster, J.
1995 United States v. Pre-Columbian Artifacts and the Republic of Guatemala. International Journal of Cultural Property 5(1)


Fagan, Brian M.
1984 Archaeology and the Wider Audience. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 175-183. New York: The Free Press.
- This details responsibilities to the public of archaeologists.
Fagan, Brian M.
1992 The Rape of the Nile: Tomb Robbers, Tourists, and Archaeologists in Egypt. Moyer Bell, Wakefield, R.I.
- This book provides a history of the "collection" of Egyptian antiquities by Europeans.
Fagan, Brian M. (HOT!)
1993 The arrogant archaeologist: ethics and conservation issues. Archaeology 46(6):14-16.
- Abstract: "Archaeologists have contributed to the problem of looting by emphasizing research, excavation and publication at the expense of conservation and ethical issues. Archaeologists need to examine their own priorities if they are to provide leadership in changing public attitudes toward looting of archaeological sites. Research is needed into the psychology of collecting and looting to develop strategies for archaeological resource conservation."
Fagan, Brian M. (HOT!)
1995 Archaeology's dirty secret. Archaeology 48(4):14-17.
- Fagan notes how archaeologists frequently fail to publish their research and equates this failure to looting.
Fagan, Brian M. (HOT!)
1995 Enlightened stewardship. Archaeology 48(3):12-13,77.
- Fagan describes the problem of protecting archaeological sites on private land in the US and a successful solution by the Archaeological Conservancy (link below).
Falgayrettes-Leveau, Christiane and Michel Leveau
1995 Dogon art at the Musée Dapper: The last reunion? African Arts 28(4):80-83,112.
- This article is about the looting of Mali's cultural artifacts and their display in museums.
Farchakh Bajjaly, Joanne and Peter Stone (eds.)
(HOT!) 2008 The Destruction of Cultural Heritagein Iraq (Heritage Matters: Contemporary issues in Archaeology). Boydell Press
- British Archaeology review: "the definitive account of the desperate, avoidable cultural tragedy of Iraq..." and from the publisher: "This book provides an historical statement as of 1st March 2006 concerning the destruction of the cultural heritage in Iraq. In a series of chapters it outlines the personal stories of a number of individuals who were - and in most cases continue to be - involved. These individuals are involved at all levels, and come from various points along the political spectrum, giving a rounded and balanced perspective so easily lost in single authored reports. It also provides the first views written by Iraqis on the situation of archaeology in Iraq under Saddam and an overview and contextualisation of the issues surrounding the looting, theft and destruction of the archaeological sites, the Iraqi National museum and the libraries in Baghdad since the war was launched in 2003"
Fasquelle, Ricardo A.
1984 La depredación del patrimonio cultural en Honduras: El caso de la arqueología. Yaxkin 7(3): 83-96.
Felch, Jason and Ralph Frammolino
(HOT!) 2011 Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum. Houghton Miffline Harcourt.
- "...award-winning reporting for the Los Angeles Times, journalists Jason Felch and Ralph Frammolino exposed the dramatic story of the Getty's underhanded art dealings led by their former antiquities curator, Marion True." (also see & hear this NPR story about their work:
- The authors report that True is the first curator to be indicted for dealing in stolen antiquities. The morale: it is better to display borrowed treasures on loan from other countries than to own them outright.
Feldinger, Lauren Gelfond
(HOT!) 2017 Israel can hide archaeological activity in West Bank, court rules. The Art Newspaper 18 January 2017. Online at:
- "... a ruling by Israel.s Jerusalem District Court at the end of November... authorises Israeli archaeologists to dig in the West Bank anonymously and to lend artefacts found on site to Israeli institutions without disclosing these loans.... the court decided that publicising the names of institutions receiving artefacts on loan and locations of storage facilities could .hurt foreign relations. in future negotiations with Palestinians.... [and] that revealing the identities of archaeologists working in the West Bank could hurt their opportunities to publish, receive research grants and work with research institutions abroad because of international boycotts."
Fenn, Forrest
2001 The Infamous Woody Blackwell Fakes. Prehistoric American 35(1):40-41.
- a defrauded collector complains and boasts
Ferguson, T. J.
1984 Archaeological Ethics and Values in a Tribal Cultural Resource Management Program at the Pueblo of Zuni. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp.224-235. New York: The Free Press.
- This piece notes archaeologists' responsibilities to the public.
Fernquest, Jon
2014 Gold treasure found buried in farmer's field. Bangkok Post 29 May 2014. Online at
- "After farmer finds gold in field while plowing, hundreds rush to field to search for gold. Fine Arts Department finally arrives & offers to buy gold." (Phattalung, Thailand)
Ferri, Paolo Giorgio
2009 New types of cooperation between museums and countries of origin in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Fifield, Terence E. and Jack Davis
2000 Archaeological resources protection act conviction on the Tongass National Forest, Alaska. SAA Bulletin 18(1):29
Fiskesjö, Magnus
2010 The Reappearance of Yangshao? Reflections on unmourned artifacts. China Heritage Quarterly No. 23, (September 2010).
- review essay on the 2007 Chinese documentary film Cutting through the fog of history: The re-appearance of the Yangshao cultural relics, but also a commentary on the "complex issue of why there is NO mourning in China of the lost artefacts from the very first scientific excavations of the Neolithic in China, which includes some fabulous items ("national" treasures??)..." [Fiskesjo]
2010 Tomb raiders and destruction of history. China Daily (Beijing), June 23, 2010, p. 9 (Opinion). Online at
- "...when asked if ancient tombs... should be opened or not, the first answer has to be that it is a question that only the Chinese can answer. But China's cultural heritage is not just a matter for China. It is also world heritage.
2010 Global repatriations and 'universal museums.' Anthropology News 51.2 (March 2010): 10 & 12. In Focus Commentary of a special Repatriations issue. Available at:
2010 The politics of cultural heritage Reclaiming Chinese Society: The New Social Activism, edited by Ching Kwan Lee and Hsing, You-tien. London: Routledge.
2007 The trouble with world culture: Recent museum developments in Sweden. Anthropology Today 23.5 (October 2007): 6.11.
2006 Chinese collections outside China: Problems and hopes. (Revised from an invited inaugural lecture for the International Centre for Chinese Heritage and Archaeology, University College London, March 2005.) Public Archaeology [London] 5.2 (2006), 111.26.
2005 A foreign bird in a golden cage: On Asia collections in Sweden. [En främmande fågel i en förgylld bur: Reflektioner kring svenska Asiensamlingar]. Res Publica 65 (Special issue, "Tracing the Collector"), 2005, 68-80 (in Swedish)
2004 The China Connection: The Cross-Continental Ethics of Johan Gunnar Andersson and the Making of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities. In H\345kan Karlsson (ed.) Swedish Archaeologists on Ethics. Lindome: Bricoleur Press, 179-96.
2003 New Concepts for Collection Sharing: European-Asian Museum History, Its Discontents, and Possibilities for the Future. In Anna Karlström and Anna Källén (eds.) Fishbones and Glittering Emblems. Southeast Asian Archaeology 2002 (Proceedings of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists' 9th International Conference, Sigtuna, Sweden, 2002, Session 8: European Museums as Storehouses of Asian Heritage: Issues of Access and Interpretation). Stockholm: Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 459-69
2003 Shui wei shijie wenhua fuze -- Yi ge xifang de bowuguan guanzhang de guandian [Who will take responsibility for the world cultural heritage? -- The view of a Western museum director]. Zhongguo wenwu bao (National Cultural Heritage Board, Beijing), Heritage Weekly supplement, Feb. 14, front page.
2003 Shiluo de wenming ["Lost Civilizations, Lost Choices"]. Dushu (Beijing) 2, 72-75.
2002 Stoppa rovdriften [Stop the plunder. - Polemic against the international trade in illicit antiquities]. Dagens Nyheter (Stockholm), July 30, Kultur/B2.
2002 Kinesiska bronser visas i syfte att vinna guld [Chinese Bronzes Shown For Gold]. Review of Museum exhibits at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA and Academia Sinica, Taipei. Axess [Stockholm], Oct. 1, 36-37. Fiskesjö, Magnus, Robert Bagley & Robert Murowchick
2005 Stop Plundering China's Past. March 16, 2005. Posted and archived at the website of SAFE, Saving Antiquities for Everyone. Available at:
Finoshara, Maria
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2014 Relics for Rifles: Syrian rebels trade antique treasures for weapons. RT (Russia TodayOctober 23, 1014. Online at:
- "Not only is Syria's future at stake as the civil war rages on, but now also its past. The black market flourishing in the conflict now sees relics - some as ancient as 1,200 years - traded by rebels for AK-47s."
- includes video: '3000 yr-old artifacts for arms: Syria's history buying bullets and bombs' Online at:
Fitting, James E.
1984 Economics and Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 117-122. New York: The Free Press.
- Fitting describes archaeologists' responsibilities to the profession.
Flaschar, Martin
2000 Bewahren als Problem. Freieburg
Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn (ed.)
2003 Ethics and the Profession of Anthropology (2nd Ed.) Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press
- reviewed in Anthropology Review Database -- variety of chapters on NAGPRA, Kennewick Man case, cyberethics, and more -- useful as a text, extensively revised from 1991 version
Fogelman, Gary
1999 Too Good To Be True: The Woody Blackwell Clovis “Cache”. Indian Artifact Magazine 18(3):8-9.
- recent lithic fraud
Ford, Ben
2008 What is the difference between archaeologists and treasure hunters? The Museum of Underwater Archaeology Lake Ontario Maritime Cultural Landscape Project Journal 23 June 2008 Online:
- "This question has been a hot topic in underwater archaeology during recent years, especially with the blurring of the lines between science and industry and archaeology and marine salvage. However, until this past week I had largely stayed out of the fray, partially out of the naïve assumption that in most cases any right-minded individual could distinguish scholarly archaeological research from goodie-grabbing treasure hunting. I was wrong..."
Ford, Richard L.
1984 Ethics and the Museum Archaeologist. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp.133-142. New York: The Free Press.
- Ford describes archaeologists' responsibilities to the profession.
Fowler, Don D.
1984 Ethics in Contract Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 108-116. New York: The Free Press.
- Fowler describes archaeologists' responsibilities to the profession.
Frink, D.S.
1997 Managing the Public's Cultural Resources: From Presentation to Participation. Journal of Middle Atlantic Archaeology 13:161-165.
- From the author <>: "(The) paper presents a public educational program for elementary schools using actual archaeological sites located on school land. The results of providing access and use of these resources to the community changes public perceptions toward conservation and protection and away from more destructive persuits of curriosity."
Frison, George C.
1984 Avocational Archaeology: Its Past, Present, and Future. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 184-193. New York: The Free Press.
- Frison describes archaeologists' responsibilities to the public.
Frison, George, and Bruce Bradley
1999 The Fenn Cache Clovis Weapons and Tools. One Horse Land and Cattle Company, Santa Fe.
- archaeologists publish a private collection


Gabriel, Mille
2009 The return of cultural heritage from Denmark to Greenland in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Getty Information Institute
1998 Protecting Cultural Objects in the Global Information Society: The Making of Object ID. Getty Information Institute, 1200 Gettey Center Dr., Suite 300, Los Angeles, California, USA 90049-1680. (Fax: 310-440-7715).
- This work describes a way of marking artifacts to inhibit theft.
Gibbins, David
2006 Crusader Gold. London: Headline.
- fiction: archaeologists follow trail of fabled Viking king Harald Hardrada & the long-lost golden menora from Jerusalem's Holy Templ, alluding thugs and solving mysteries along the way through wuick wits, complex scholarship, & archaeological 'science'; touches on looting as a theme plus makes specific references to Nazi relic hunters and looting
Gifford, Jack
1994 Smoke and mirrors, GE Gate, Part 2: "Now you see it, Now you don't". Central States Archaeological Journal 41(2):60-63.
- In several parts, Gifford details the Art Gerber Case, involving destruction of a Hopewell mound in Indiana.
1994 The spiders and the fly, GE Gate Part 3: Oh what tangled webs we weave. Central States Archaeological Journal 41(3):126-128.
1994 The spiders and the fly, GE Gate Part 3: Oh what tangled webs we weave. Central States Archaeological Journal 41(4):192-195.
Gill, David
1993 Treasure hunting for the benefit of charities. Current Archaeology 135:119
Gilkison, Carrie
2018 (HOT!) After Dramatic Bidding at Christie’s, 3,000-Year-Old Artifact Sells to Anonymous Buyer. The Epoch Times October 31, 2018 Online at:
- An Assyrian gypsum relief of a Winged Genius from the reign of Ashurnasirpal II, circa 883-859 BC. Unearthed at the palace at Nimrud (Mosul, Iraq) and brought to the US by a missionary, this relief has been at Virginia Theological seminary since 1859. Sold at auction for $27,250,000.
Gill, David
1994 Publishing unprovenanced artifacts: further observations. Electronic Antiquity 2(2)
- "Archaeological sites around the Mediterranean and elsewhere are suffering major damage due to systematic and illicit excavations in order to supply the needs of the antiquities market. This activity in turn feeds the appetites of the museums and the private collectors who are willing to buy." "Dr Gill's response follows on from the issues raised by Dr. McClellan, 'Publishing Unprovenanced Artifacts' and the response by Dr Hamma of the J. Paul Getty Museum in *EA* 2, 1 - June 1994."
Gill, David
1994 Publishing unprovenanced artifacts: further observations. Electronic Antiquity 2.2
Gill, David and K. Butcher
1990 Mischievous pastime or historical science? review article of Minerva Antiquity 64:946-50
Gill, David and Christopher Chippindale
1993 Material and intellectual consequences of esteem for Cycladic figures. American Journal of Archaeology 97:601-59
- fakes confuse archaeological record
Gorall, R.
1996 A Vital Connection: Avocational Archaeologists and the NYSAA. In A Golden Chronograph for Robert E. Funk edited by C. Lindner and E.V. Curtin, pp. 41-44. Occasional Papers in Northeastern Anthropology No. 15. Arcaheological Services, Bethlehem, CT
Gorall, former president of the New York State Archaeological Association, describes the role avocationalists play in archaeology.
Gorvy, Brett
1991 To catch a thief. Antique Collector (UK) 62(9):68-71.
- From Laura Pope Robbins: "The motives behind art theft are examined by the author. The article includes statistics that show art theft is on the rise and notes the difficulty in recovering stolen art works and convicting the criminals. Preventing and combatting art theft is also discussed."
Goswald, Udo
2009 ICOM statement on reclaiming cultural property in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Graepler, Daniel
2004 Archäologie und illegaler Antikenhandel: die Rolle der Universitätssamlungen" in Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer and J. Cordelia Eule's Illegale Archäologie?: 116-130
Graepler, D. and Marina Mazzei
1996 Provenienza: sconosciuta! Tombaroli, mercanti e collezionisti: L'Italia archeologica allo sbaraglio Bari: Edipuglia.
- also published in German under the title of Fundort Unbekannt: Raubgrabungen zerstoren das archaologische Erbe (Heidelberg 1993)
Graham, Ian
1997 Mission to La Corona. Archaeology 50(5): 46
1988 Homeless hieroglyphs. Antiquity 62(234): 122-126
1980 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions 2, part 3,: Ixkun, Ucanal, Ixtutz, Naranjo. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Boston.
1978 Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions 2, part 2,: Naranjo, Chunhuitz, Xunantunich. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Boston.
1968 Looters rob graves and history. National Geographic 169(4): 452-461
Gramly, Richard Michael
1996 What is Looting? Indian-Artifact Magazine 15(1):53.
- From the perspective from an archaeologist who actively works with collectors, this letter/editorial condemns use of "looting" as improperly applied by 'professional' archaeologists and suggests they should be educating instead of name-calling.
Grantham, David
2016 Shutting Down ISIS' Antiquities Trade. National Center for Policy Analysis Issue Briefs No. 185. Online:
- "Stopping the illegal antiquities trade and protecting movable cultural heritage in conflict should be one of the United States' military's top priorities.... Since money earned from the sale of antiquities directly finances the very organizations pitted against U.S. armed forces, all relevant military assets and legal procedures should be used as tools for interaction and preservation."
Green, Dee F.
1984 Ethical Dilemmas in Federal Cultural Resource Management. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 97-107. New York: The Free Press.
- Green describes the responsibilities of archaeologists to the profession.
Green, Ernestene L. (editor)
1984 Ethics and Values in Archaeology. New York: The Free Press.
- This book has copies of the Society of Professional Archaeologists Code of Ethics & Standards of Research Performance; Society for American Archaeology Ethics for Archaeology; and American Anthropological Association Statements on Ethics. The enclosed chapters address the background to the ethics question, responsibilities of archaeologists to the public, and to the profession.
Greenfield, Jeanette
1996 The Return of Cultural Treasures, Second Edition. CUP, Cambridge.
- The author discusses historical, legal, and political issues surrounding cases of stolen art treasures (e.g. "Elgin Marbles", treasures held by Russia), paleontological objects, and cultural objects (e.g. Icelandic manuscripts, Mesoamerican artifacts, Hebrew Manuscripts in the Vatica, Dead Sea Scrolls). She mentions infamous "collectors" such as Aurel Stein and André Malraux. There are many illustrations and a large bibliography.
Griffin, Gillett G.
1989 Collecting Pre-Columbian Art. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.103-116. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- The author provides options to the "cultural steward" question. (HOT!)
1986 In defense of the collector. National Geographic 169(4): 462-465
Guerrero, Blanca Alva
2009 Repatriation of cultural properties: the Peruvian experience in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Gurman, Sadie and Brady McCombs
(HOT!) 2016 Lawsuit Over Artifact Looting Case Suicide in Appeals Court. ABC News Sep 20, 2016. Online: <
- "The family of a Utah doctor who killed himself after his 2009 arrest in an artifact looting investigation that marked an early flashpoint in the rural public lands struggle in the western United States asked an appeals court Tuesday to revive an excessive force lawsuit against the federal Bureau of Land Management. James Redd's family argues that he was treated unfairly ..."
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Gutchen, Mark
1982 The Maya Crisis and the Law: Current United States and the international law of the Maya antiquities trade. Arizona Journal of Trade and International Law 1(1): 283-309.
1983 The destruction of archaeological resources in Belize. Journal of Field Archaeology. 10: 217-228.
2018 Stolen Bronze Age dagger returns to Slovenia after 33 years. STA News July 11, 2018. Online at:
- "A precious bronze dagger, which dates back around 3,600 years, has been returned to Slovenia 33 years after it was stolen from the National Museum in Ljubljana. The artefact was tracked down by the Interpol at a London auction in 2015 and has been returned via diplomatic route."


Hairs, Joya
1973 La operación rescate: un recurso de emergencia para salvar el patrimonio arqueológico de Guatemala. Anales de la Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala. 46(1/4): 166-168.
Hale, Tom
2019 Russian Historian Claims To Have Located Napoleon's Long-Lost Buried Gold IFLScience Jan. 4, 2019 Online at=
- "Stories of Napoleon Bonaparte's stolen gold have been muttered for over two centuries. Rumor has it, the fiercely successful French statesman and his soldiers looted the grand palaces and churches of Moscow during a retreat in his failed 1812 invasion of Russia before hiding the loot in a secret location. Now, a Russian historian claims to have a new lead and believe he knows where the treasure is buried. Speaking to local newspaper Rabochy Put, Viacheslav Ryzhkov argues that the treasure is, in fact, at the bottom of Lake Bolshaya Rutavech, close to the town of Rudnya near Russia’s western border with Belarus."
Halsey, J.R.
1991 "State Secrets": the protection and management of archaeological site information in Michigan. In Ethics and Professional Anthropology, edited by C. Fluehr-Lobban, pp. 115-119. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
- This item notes how the publishing of archaeological site locations in reports puts them at risk from collectors and looters.
Hameed, Saif
2015 US delivers Iraqi antiquities seized in raid on Islamic State. Yahoo News July 15, 2015. Online at
- "The United States handed back to Iraq on Wednesday antiquities it said it had seized in a raid on Islamic State fighters in Syria, saying the haul was proof the militants were funding their war by smuggling ancient treasures.... They included ancient cylindrical stamps, pottery, metallic bracelets and other jewelry, and glass shards from what appeared to be a colored vase.... [and] early Islamic coins."
Hamilton, C.E.
1995 A cautionary perspective. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 57-63. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- Hamilton stresses the value of archaeological information over the artifacts themselves (e.g. let commercial excavators sell or keep the artifacts after the information is recorded).
Hamilton, Henry W.
1952 The Spiro Mound. The Missouri Archaeologist 14:1-276.
- includes info on looting of site
Hansen, R.D.
1997 Plundering the past. Archaeology 50(5): 48-49
Harrington, S.P.M.
1998 "Plundering the Three Gorges" Archaeology Online News May 14.
- Briefly describes the "unprecedented rash of looting is following in the wake of construction of the Three Gorges Dam on the middle reaches of China's Yangtze River"
1991 The looting of Arkansas. Archaeology 44(3):22-31.
- The increased value of antiquities has lead to looting of more archaeological sites.
Harris, Leo J.
1989 From the Collector's Perspective: The Legality of Importing Pre-Columbian Art and Artifacts. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.155-176. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- Harris provides perceptions and conditions on cultural property regulations from the perspective of a collector.
Hastorf, C. and I. Hodder
1991 Archaeology and the other. Anthropology UCLA 18(1):1-11.
- (This item may contain relevant information on archaeological professionalism, but I have not yet been able to examine a copy.)
Healy, Paul F.
1984 Archaeology Abroad: Ethical Considerations of Fieldwork in Foreign Countries. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 123-132. New York: The Free Press.
- Healy describes the duties of archaeologists to the profession.
Heilmeyer, Wolf-Dieter & J. Cordelia Eule (eds.)
2004 Illegale Archäologie? Weissensee Verlag, Berlin
Herscher, Ellen
1984 The antiquities market: news and commentary on the illicit trade in antiquities. Journal of Field Archaeology 11(4): 421-430.
- Herscher comments on current trends in the stolen antiquities market.
Herscher, Ellen
1989 International Control Efforts: Are There Any Good Solutions? In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.117-128. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- This article provides options in the "cultural steward" question.
Hester, Peter
1990 Thoughts on Collecting Indian-Artifact Magazine 9(1):48-49.
- Hester discusses a collector's view of collecting.
Hester, Thomas R.
1999 Observations on Fraudulent Artifacts in the Borderlands. La Tierra 26(3):1-6.
- fakes and markets
Hicks, Robert D.
1999 Theft of Historic Resources. Sample Directives Manual for Virginia Law-Enforcement Agencies. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services.
- From a sample law-enforcement policy manual intended to help agencies develop written policies on standard topics. The orders can be downloaded and then adjusted to suit local circumstances.
1999 End-of-Millenium (Almost) Report on Time Crime (including sidebar Bringing Out the Dead). Virginia Archaeologist, the newsletter of COVA 16(2).
- "The purpose of this article is to acquaint archaeologists with highlights from three years of the program, discuss the nature and extent of archaeological looting in Virginia, and meditate on the future. Although the time crime program has proceeded in directions quite unanticipated three years ago, the most persistent problems or questions raised by law-enforcement officers concern human burials."
1997 Time Crime: Protecting the Past for Future Generations FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 66.7 (July):1-7
- From the article: "Whether taken by naive hobbyists or plundered by sophisticated criminals, the legacy of our ancestors is in jeopardy."
Hiel, Betsy
2013 Egypt's ancient treasures being lost to looters. TRIB Live USWorld. February 16, 2013 Online:
- At the Dahshour necropolis, a United Nations World Heritage Site, "brazen looting" and a modern encroaching cemetery "reflect Egypt's lawlessness and political unrest since its 2011 revolution". The story includes a slideshow.
Hingston, Ann Guthrie
1989 U.S. Implementation of the UNESCO Cultural Property Convention. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.129-148. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- Hingston provides more options in the "cultural steward" question.
Hofstadter, Dan
1994 Goldberg's Angel: An Adventure in the Antiquities Trade. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroud.
Holloway, Marguerite
1995 The Preservation of the Past. Scientific American:98-101.
- Abstract: "Conservators are racing to save monuments threatened by development, pollution, looting and neglect. In the process, they are transforming the field of archaeology into a new science."
Holmes, Oliver and Luke Harding
(HOT!) 2016 British second world war shipwrecks in Java Sea destroyed by illegal scavenging. The Guardian Wednesday 16 November 2016 Online at:
- "Three British ships and a US submarine that sank in the Java Sea during the second world war have been destroyed by illegal scrap metal scavengers... Three British ships and a US submarine that sank in the Java Sea during the second world war have been destroyed by illegal scrap metal scavengers... The commercial salvaging of war wrecks has caused significant upset among veterans, historians and governments... the wrecks of HMS Exeter, a 175m heavy cruiser, and destroyer HMS Encounter have been almost totally removed."
Holtorf, Cornelius, and Tim Schadla-Hall
1999 Age as Artefact: On Archaeological Authenticity. European Journal of Archaeology 2(2):229-247.
Hoopes, John W.
1997 Ordeal in Chiapas: Archaeologists Survive Attack During Attempt to Rescue Maya Altar from Looters SAA Bulletin 15(4)
- Hoopes describes the experiences of University of Calgary archaeologist Peter Mathews' encounter with looters while trying to save a Mayan alter in Chiapas.
Hosty, Kieran
1995 A matter of ethics: shipwrecks, salvage, archaeology and museums. Bulletin of the Australian Institute for Maritime Archaeology 19(1):33-36.
- Museums like to produce "blockbuster" exhibitions to attract large crowds for much-needed revenue, but these may bring them in "direct conflict with established archaeological principles and museum ethics..." (p.33). The articles describes the Australian National Maritime Museum's 1995 RMS Titanic Exhibition, apparently including artifacts looted from the wreck.
Hothem, Lar
1992 Fake Chipped Artifacts: Some Considerations. Hothem House, Lancaster.
- collector, detection tips
1990 Part 1: Thoughts on collecting, from the readers and others. Indian-Artifact Magazine 9: 4-13
1990 Part II: On the value of amateurs, collectors, and collecting. Indian-Artifact Magazine 9: 18-27
1990 Part III: Positions & legislation. Indian-Artifact Magazine 9: 28-37
1990 Part IV: Bad news -- articles by anti-collecting professionals. Indian-Artifact Magazine 9: 38-46
Howard, Calvin
1994 Natural Indicators of Lithic Artifact Authenticity. North American Archaeologist 15(4):321-330.
Howard, Calvin
2001 Authentication Analysis of the Angus Nebraska Fluted Point. Plains Anthropologist 46(177):323-325.
Hutt, Sherry, Elwood Jones, and Martin McAllister
1992 Archeological Resource Protection. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Press.
Robert Hicks "...excellent history of archeological protection laws... section on law enforcement investigative methods is a bit slim.... (misses) last six years' worth of ARPA cases..."


Ilan, D. et al.
1989 Plundered! Biblical Archaeological Review XV(2): 38-42
Inskeep, Steve
2009 Writer Hitchens: Parthenon Sculptures Must Go Back. NPR Morning Edition June 18, 2009 Online: Also available: 4:32 interview.
- Christopher Hitchens, writer for Vanity Fair, interviewed about the new Parthenon Museum and especially the Elgin Marbles. (Italy, the Vatican, and a museum in Heidelberg have all returned Parthenon sculptures. The British Museum refuses to return their collection.)
- "...The relics, known as the Parthenon or Elgin Marbles, have remained a controversial part of the British Museum's collection since 1816. Debate continues over the legality of Elgin's actions and whether the Marbles should be returned to Greece. That controversy continues with the opening of a new museum in Athens. The Acropolis Museum has created a display that shows how the sculptures would have looked on the Parthenon itself. Plaster casts fill the spaces where the Elgin Marbles will be if they are returned by the British."
Isler-Kerenyi, Cornelia (HOT!)
1994 Are collectors the real looters? Antiquity 68(259):350-2
- The illicit trade in archeological artifacts is the result of individual collectors and museums. The author suggests putting all of the great monies collectors currently use to purchase objects into care and study of objects (ideally in situ), and training of archaeologists and conservationists (this is a "note" which adds to the feud between Elia (1993 & 1996) and Renfrew (1993) above).


Jansen, Michael
2005 War and Cultural Heritage: Cyprus after the 1974 Turkish Invasion. Minnesota Mediterranean and East European Monographs 14. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Modern Greek Studies, University of Minnesota. 92pp. ISBN: 1057-3941
- "The book, whose introduction of 11 pages is exclusively on the looting of Iraq after the 2003 invasion, is now going through a second edition and will appear in May 2006." [T.G. Stavrou]
Jarus, Owen
NEW! 06/28/19 2019 Exclusive: Controversial King Tut Statue Has Sketchy Origins. Now Christie's Is Selling it. LiveScience June 25, 2019 Online at:
- "a diplomatic dispute rages between Egypt and the auction house Christie's in London over a sculpture depicting the head of the pharaoh Tutankhamun... [estimated value around $5.1 million] Egypt believes that it was looted from the Karnak temple sometime after 1970, and the country's embassy in the U.K. has demanded that the sculpture be repatriated to Egypt. Christie's claims that the sculpture was owned by Prinz (Prince) Wilhelm von Thurn und Taxis (who lived from 1919 to 2004) in the 1960s and that he sold it in 1973 or 1974 to Josef Messina, the owner of Galerie Kokorian & Co, Vienna."
- the story traces the object's history
2018 Middle East Looters Turn to Spirit Possession to Find Gold Treasure. Live Science Nov. 20, 2018 Online at:
- "As "antique" gold coins from the Middle East pour into the United States, some looters are turning to spirits called "jinn" in their hunt for gold treasure. A few gold seekers even go so far as to try to get the jinn to possess them in hopes that the spirits will guide them to that hidden jackpot. However, research by archaeologists and an investigation conducted by Live Science suggest that rarely, if ever, does using the jinn help looters find gold artifacts. Rather, metal detectors and mass excavation of archaeological sites seem to be the most effective ways of looting treasure." (references Israel, Palestine, Jordan, and Syria)
Jelks, E.B.
1995 Professionalism and the Society of Professional Archaeologists. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 14-16. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- Jelks mentions the desire for standards which led to founding of SOPA.
Jenkins, Chris L.
2002 In Va., a Vanishing Era Civil War Relic Hunters Running Out of Relics -- and Places to Look Washington Post Wednesday, April 24, 2002; Page B01
- relic-hunters face scarcer pickings due to increasing numbers of hunters, increasingly limited access (laws, urban sprawl), and depletion of the resource base
Jenkins, Simon
2007 In Iraq's four-year looting frenzy, the allies have become the vandals. The Guardian June 8, 2007. Online:,,2098272,00.html
- "British and American collusion in the pillaging of Iraq's heritage is a scandal that will outlive any passing conflict..."
Jenks, Albert Ernest
1900 A Remarkable Counterfeiter. American Anthropologist 2:292-296.
- early lithic fakes
Jeske, Robert J.
1997 Who Owns the Artifacts? The Glyph (San Diego Society, a Chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America) September Issue
- This is part of the "Pot-diggers: Property Rights, and Public Interest - A Debate" along with Jeff Meek: "Private Property Rights and the Value of Archaeological Artifacts". Jeske addresses the issue of property rights from the archaeological (and government/societal) standpoint, that they are only rights as dictated by the state, and stand in the way of the protection of cultural heritage.
Johnson, Kirk
2010 Suicide Raises Legal Issues in Indian Artifacts Cases. NY Times Mar 8, 2010. Online:
- "...As an undercover federal source in a years-long investigation into the shadowy world of the excavation and trading of ancient American Indian art and artifacts in the Southwest, [Ted Gardiner] was at the center of a sprawling criminal case unfolding in federal court here and in Colorado. On Monday, federal prosecutors said at a hearing that the cases would go on."
2008 Energy Boom in West Threatens Indian Artifacts. NY Times Online:
- There are larger threats to our heritage than just intentional pilfering.
"The consequences of energy exploration for wildlife and air quality have long been contentious in unspoiled corners of the West. But now with the urgent push for even more energy, there are new worries that history and prehistory — much of it still unexplored or unknown — could be lost."
Johnston, Ian
2013 Why extreme Islamists are intent on destroying cultural artifacts. NBC World News February 2, 2013. Online:
- "Extreme Islamist movements across the world have developed a reputation for the destruction of historic artifacts, monuments and buildings.... To many in the West, such actions are simply wanton vandalism. However, experts say the thinking behind it is actually part of a wider tradition of rooting out idol-worship and superstition found in Christianity and Judaism as well as Islam."
Jonathan Jones, Jonathan (HOT!)
2007 The Parthenon marbles should not be returned to Greece Guardian Unlimited: Arts blog. October 18, 2007. Online:
- He begins "The British Museum must hold its ground. And I think people should shut up and look at the art, instead of turning it into a trite talking point." Followed with responses by others. [Elgin Marbles]
Jones, Mark
1990 Fake? The Art of Deception. Trustees of the British Museum, London.
- British Museum exhibit
Joy, William
2019 NEW! 5/9/19 Buried treasure: Long lost Steamboat Malta found under Missouri farm land. KMBC News May 7, 2019 Online at:
- Historian and treasure hunter David Hawley has found the remains of a sunken Missouri steamship, the Malta, lost in 1841, now residing 40 feet under a cornfield. Plans to surface the wreck and its valuable cargo await an estimated $3M in funds and space in a local museum.


Kaiser, T.
1990 The antiquities market. Journal of Field Archaeology 17:205-210.
- Kaiser provides four case studies on looted/stolen artifacts, including Sipan Moche, the Cyprus mosaics, the Icklingham bronzes, and the Mexico City National Museum of Anthropology break-in.
Kaiser, T.
1991 The thieves of time and their accomplices. Journal of Field Archaeology 18:87-89.
- Kaiser describes thefts from Greek museums.
Kaplan, Sarah (HOT!)
Meet Sarah Parcak, a high-tech Indiana Jones, who just won $1 million for tracking down antiquities looters. November 12, 2015.
- "For years, with funding from the National Science Foundation and National Geographic, Parcak has been using this technology [satellite imagery] to identify sites for archaeological exploration.... The sudden appearance of dozens of new looting sites in the areas she studies is what got Parcak interested in using satellite images to track heritage theft in the first place."
Karlsson, Håkan (ed.) (HOT!)
2004 Swedish Archaeologists on Ethics. Lindome: Bricoleur Press
- eighteen papers demonstrating Swedish views on the moral/ethical issues in contemporary archaeology that are not always in alignment with the UK or USA; only the papers by Lunden and Fiskesjö specifically address looting
Kemp, Donna M.
2000 Site now locked to keep vandals from trashing history. Deseret News January 23, 2000. Online:,1249,150007712,00.html.
- due to repeat looting and vandalism, two caves in Utah are now fenced to limit access, but looting continues Kimmelman, Michael
2009 When Ancient Artifacts Become Political Pawns. NY Times October 23, 2009. Online:
- "...Over the years Egypt has occasionally made a bid for Nefertiti, when the political climate is ripe. Germans point out that Ludwig Borchardt, who discovered Nefertiti at Tel el Amarna in 1912, had Egyptian approval to take it to Berlin. Just the other day, Iraq repeated its demand that Germany return the Gate of Ishtar from the ancient city of Babylon, excavated and shipped to Berlin before World War I."
King, Jaime Lituak
1989 Cultural Property and National Sovereignty. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.199-208. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- Perceptions and conditions on cultural property regulations are described.
King, Thomas F.
2000 It's an adverse effect to destroy an archaeological site! (Duh!) Part One. SAA Bulletin 18(1):19-20
- changes to the US Advisory Council on Historic Preservation regulations, removal of the "research exception", where an agency could destroy a site if it was valueable only for its research potential
King, Thomas F.
1991 "Some dimensions of the pothunting problem" in Protecting the Past edited by George S. Smith and John E. Ehrenhard. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
- (This item may contain relevant information on looting, but I have not yet been able to examine a copy.)
King, T.F.
1985 The Whiddah and the ethics of cooperating with pothunters: a view. SOPA Newsletter 9(3-4):1-3.
- King stresses the value of archaeological information over the artifacts themselves (e.g. let commercial excavators sell or keep the artifacts after the information is recorded). There is a rebuttal by W.B. Lees and subsequent discussion in SOPA News 9(6) and 15(8-9) (can anyone get me a copy of these...??).
King, T.F.
1985 Sheep don't take very good care of themselves: a response to Lees. SOPA Newsletter 9(6):4-8.
- King stresses the value of archaeological information over the artifacts themselves (e.g. let commercial excavators sell or keep the artifacts after the information is recorded).
Kingstone, Steve
2008 Spain seizes 'priceless' antiques. BBC News May 6, 2008 Online:
- "Spanish police have arrested a couple accused of illegally trafficking a "priceless" haul of artefacts from Latin America for resale in Europe.... It is alleged that the historic treasures were plundered from archaeological sites - mostly in Peru and Ecuador - and then sold on to the couple through middlemen in Colombia.... The confiscated artefacts are due to be analysed at a museum in Madrid, and will later be returned to their countries of origin."
Kintigh, K.W.
1996 SAA Principles of archaeological ethics. SAA Bulletin 14(3):5,17.
- Publication of the Society for American Archaeology's code of ethics (see link below).
Kleiner, F.S.
1990 On the publication of recent acquisitions of antiquities. American Journal of Archaeology 94:525-527.
- The editor of American Journal of Archaeology decided to stop publishing articles which might elevate value of looted antiquities.
Kloor, Keith
(HOT!) 2012 Archaeologists Protest 'Glamorization' of Looting on TV. ScienceInsider March 1, 2012. Online:
- "Archaeologists are mounting a campaign against two new cable TV shows that they say encourage and glamorize looting of American archaeological sites."
Kight, Fred (multimedia available)
2009 Ohio, Kentucky Feuding Over A Rock In A Hard Place. NPR Morning Edition, January 26, 2009. Online: with audiofile.
- "The states of Ohio and Kentucky are battling over a most unlikely object: a graffiti-covered rock. ...first written about in an archeological publication in 1847..." [called "Indian Head Rock"; also see Gary Slapper article]
Knell, Yolande
2011 Egyptian Museum: Cairo's looted treasure. BBC News 12 February 2011. Online at
- "...the Egyptian Museum and the priceless, cultural treasures it contains have been in alarmingly close proximity to troubles in Cairo's Tahrir Square. Following an inventory, Antiquities Minister Zahi Hawass has now confirmed for the first time that artefacts were stolen during a break-in on 28 January." and other museums were also targeted (the Coptic Museum in old Cairo and the Royal Jewellery Museum in Alexandria, open-air museum in Memphis, etc.)
(HOT!) 2009 The quest to regain Egypt's antiquities BBC News 11 November 2009. Online at
- "Later this month Egyptian archaeologists will travel to the Louvre Museum in Paris to collect five ancient fresco fragments stolen from a tomb in the Valley of the Kings in the 1980s, but there are many other "stolen" antiquities which they also want back." Other objects include: the Rosetta Stone (British Museum), a bust of Queen Nefertiti and a statue of Great Pyramid architect Hemiunu (Neues Museum in Berlin), the bust of Chepren Pyramid builder Anchhaf (Boston Museum of Fine Arts), and a painted Zodiac from the Dendera temple (Louvre). "If they cannot be returned permanently, Mr Hawass would at least like them back on loan for the opening of Egypt's Grand Museum at Giza, due by 2013. So far there have been mostly cautious responses."
Knudson, Ruthann
1984 Ethical Decision Making and Participation in the Politics of Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 243-263. New York: The Free Press.
- This notes the archaeologist's responsibilities to the public.
Koczka, Charles S.
1989 The Need for Enforcing Regulations on the International Art Trade. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.185-198. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- Koczka provides perceptions and conditions on cultural property regulations.
Koczka, Charles S.
1989 Some domestic and international laws and regulations and their enforcers. Appendix I in The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.253-256. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- the author describes US and international laws and regulations concerning cultural property, and some of the regulatory bodies involved.
Konaré, Alpha Oumar
1995 Toward more efficient international collaboration African Arts 28(4):27-31.
- This article is about looting of Mali's cultural artifacts and the need for more concerted efforts to stop it.
Kouroupas, Maria Papageorge
1995 US efforts to protect cultural property: implementation of the 1970 UNESCO Convention African Arts 28(4):32-41.
- This describes how the US is trying to limit the looting of cultural artifacts, focusing lon the ooting in Mali.


Labi, Aisha and Simon Robinson
2001 Looting Africa. Time July 30. 158(4):50-2.
Url: LootingAfrica_TimeJul30_01.pdf.
- "Theft, illicit sales, poverty and war are conspiring to rob a continent of its rich artistic heritage..." Quick jump into some of the issues, personalities, and emotions that underlie the whole looting prohblem for heritage pieces in the world of art.
Lamberg-Karlovsky, C.C.
1995 review of "Sir Aurel Stein and Was There a Bronze Age Silk Road?" by Annabel Walker The Review of Archaeology 16(2):1-5.
- During the Second Expedition to Chinese Turkestan, Stein brought back seven camel loads of cultural treasures, including thousands of manuscripts, paintings and textiles from the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas at Tun-huang, China, purchased from a local priest for 130 pounds sterling and taken without official permission.
Lange, Karen (HOT!)
2008 The Stolen Past. National Geographic December 2008. Online:
- "Looters are ravaging West Bank archaeological sites." With limited ways to earn a living under Israeli restrictions, Palestinians have turned to looting to make a livelihood. Includes lots of pictures.
Lasaponara, Rosa, Giovanni Leucci, Nicola Masini, Raffaele Persico
2014 Investigating archaeological looting using satellite images and GEORADAR: the experience in Lambayeque in North Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science February 2014 42: 1-538. Online at
- "...use of GeoEye and Google Earth imagery to quantitatively assess looting in Ventarron (Lambayeque, Peru) that is one of most important archaeological sites in Southern America. The mapping of areas affected by looting offered the opportunity to investigate such areas not previously systematically documented. To this purpose Ground Penetrating Radar prospections were conducted in some looted sites."
Lazrus, Paula Kay
1995 "Is field survey always non-destructive? Thoughts on survey and looting in Sardinia". Journal of Field Archaeology 22:131-135.
- From the abstract: "Archaeologists are not always aware of the ways in which seemingly innocuous research techniques may result in increased activity on the part of looters and others involved in the traffic in antiquities."
Legassick, Martin and Ciraj Rassool
2000 Skeletons in the Cupboard: South African Museums and the Trade in Human Remains, 1907-1917. Cape Town: South African Museum
- archaeologists & museologists acknowledge and condemn historical unscrupulous methods of acquiring collections...
Levy, Janet
1995 Ethics code of the American Anthropological Association and its relevance for SAA. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 86-293 Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- Levy describes the importance of the American Anthropological Association code of ethics for archaeology (see link to their Web site below).
Lipe, William D.
1996 In defense of digging: archaeological preservation as a means, not an end. CRM Magazine 19(5):23-5.
- on federal preservation policies and question of why sites should even be dug by archaeologists
Lipe, Bill and Vin Steponaitis
1998 SAA to promote professional standards through ROPA sponsorship. SAA Bulletin 16(2):1,16-17.
- Two leading figures in the Society for American Archaeology describe the newly formed Register of Professional Archaeologists.
Livoti, Sandy (with Jon Kiesa)
1997 Adventures in Stone Artifacts: A Family Guide to Arrowheads and Other Artifacts. Adventure Publications, Cambridge, MN.
- From the perspective of a collector, this controversial book details legal issues, discourages excavation, encourages recording and reporting to government agencies. It includes an interesting note from the publisher which describes the uproar over its publication.
Locke, John (HOT!)
1689 Two Treatises of Government. Republished by Wikipedia, online:
- Used by people advocating fewer goverment regulations, " The First Treatise attacks patriarchalism in the form of sentence-by-sentence refutation of Robert Filmer's Patriarcha and the Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society based on natural rights and contract theory."
Lubow, Arthur
2007 The Possessed. New York Times Magazine Jun 24 2007. Online:
- Machu Picchu bone and ceramic artifacts collected by Hiram Bingham are Yale's Peabody Museum. Debate concerns whether they should be repatriated.
Lundén, Staffan
2016 Displaying Loot: The Benin objects and the British Museum. Doctoral thesis, Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg. 26-Aug-2016. Available online:
- This detailed study deals with objects in the British Museum that were looted in 1897 from Benin City, in present-day Nigeria. It looks at how the museum represents the Benin objects, the Edo/African, the British/Westerner, and the British Museum in general, with emphasis on their decision against returning objects in its collections.
2012 Perspectives on Looting, The Illicit Antiquities Trade, Art and Heritage Art Antiquity and Law August 2012 XVII(2): 109-134
- (Lunden2012PerspectivesOnLooting.pdf -- PDF version provided by the author, and courtesy of IAL, Institute of Art and Law
- "Given the scale of looting and the large output of unprovenanced objects on the market there can be little doubt that many, if not a majority, of these objects have been recently looted, or recently manufactured. There is thus an argument that unprovanced archaeological objects on the market should be considered to be loot (or fakes) until proven otherwise." (p. 109)
2004 The Scholar and the Market: Swedish Scholarly Contributions to the Destruction of the World's Archaeological Heritage. In Swedish Archaeologists on Ethics edited by Håkan Karlsson. Lindome: Bricoleur Press.
URL: (Lunden2004.pdf)
- Describes how Swedish archaeologists have contributed to the legitimacy of those dealing and collecting looted antiquities.
Luxner, Larry
1993 Preserving pirate plunders: preserving underwater cultural resources of the Dominican Republic. Americas (English Edition) 45(5):4-5
- This article concerns Jerome Lynn Hall, founder of the Pan-American Institute of Maritime Archeology and excavator of shipwrecks in the Dominican Republic, who believes all treasures found in these wrecks should be given back to the government and put together in a public research facility.
Lynott, M.J.
1997 Ethical principles and archaeological practice: development of an ethics policy. American Antiquity 62(4):589-599.
- Lynott, a key figure in the area of archaeological ethics in the US, discusses the history and development of archaeological ethics, briefly mentioning SOPA and ROPA, and focusing on the SAA's Principles of Archaeological Ethics (see links below).
Lynott, M.J. and Vincas P. Steponaitis
1998 Training Students in Archaeological Ethics. Paper prepared for the SAA workshop on "Enhancing Undergraduate and Graduate Education and Training in Public Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management" held at Wakulla Springs, Florida, February 5-8, 1998. Draft of January 4, 1998.
Briefly discusses formal training and professionalism.
Lynott, M.J. and A. Wylie (eds.)
2000 Ethics in American Archaeology 2nd Edition.
- [see first edition notes below below]
1995 Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- This special report was stimulated by debate over use of data from looted or commercial contexts.
Lyons, Claire L.
2003 in press. Theft, Forgery and Illicit Traffic: Preventive Strategies, in A. St. Clair and P. O'Keefe (eds) Art, Antiquity and the Law: Preserving Our Global Cultural Heritage. Rutgers: Rutgers University Press.
2003 Archaeology, Conservation, and the Ethics of Sustainability,* in R. Leventhal and J. Papadopoulos (eds), Theory and Practice in Mediterranean Archaeology: Old and New World Perspectives. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology UCLA. pp.299-308.
2002 Objects and Identities: Claiming and Reclaiming the Past, in E. Barkan and R. Bush (eds) Claiming the Stones/Naming the Bones: Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity. Los Angeles: Getty Trust Publications. pp. 116-37.
- analyzes opposing legal briefs on the "Steinhardt gold phiale" case.
2000 Il caso del piatto d'oro siciliano: I giudici confermano la confisca, with P. Gerstenblith. Kalos. Arte in Sicilia.
2000 Responsabilita professionali: recenti iniziative dell*Istituto Archeologico d*America,* in P. Pelagatti and P. G. Guzzo eds, Antichita senza provenienza II, Bollettino d*Arte 101-102 Rome: Istituto Poligrafico. pp.159-63.
- Professional ethics and the responsibility of the archaeologist.
1999 U.S. Collector and Museums challenge Italian Law, Kalos. Arte in Sicilia (March 1999);
- reprinted as "La battaglia per la 'phiale'," La Sicilia, Catania, March 11


Mackenzie, Simon and Penny Green
2008 Performative Regulation: A Case Study in How Powerful People Avoid Criminal Labels The British Journal of Criminology 48:138-153 (2008) (abstract online)
- "explores the role of invested powerful business actors in the criminalization process as applied to the illicit antiquities market... a case study of the precise mechanics of the role played by trade interests in the formation of the Dealing in Cultural Objects (Offences) Act 2003... illustrates that powerful white-collar criminals, as well as sometimes preventing criminal legislation entering the statute books, can also influence the design of criminal legislation that does enter the statute books in order to protect themselves and their own business interests"
Mackey, Larry A.
1995 "The Art Gerber prosecution: A case study in interstate trafficking of stolen artifacts". Paper presented at the 60th Society for American Archaeology Annual Meetings, Minneapolis, May 3-7, 1995.
- This summarizes the Art Gerber Case, involving destruction of a Hopewell mound in Indiana.
MacLeod, Calum
2010 Tomb raiders unearth new marketplace. USA Today June 23, 2010. Online at:
- "As China grows more prosperous, more Chinese are taking up antique collecting, and the growing demand is often met by fakes or tomb robbing... the worst in 20 years".
Maffly, Brian
(HOT!) 2017 A lawsuit involving American Indian artifacts, alleged excessive force and a Utahn.s suicide has hit another wall. The Salt Lake Tribune Feb. 13, 2017. Online at:
- "A three-judge panel on Monday upheld the dismissal of a Utah family's lawsuit against a Bureau of Land Management agent blamed for the suicide of Blanding physician James Redd, saying the agent was entitled to "qualified immunity" and his conduct did not violate Fourth Amendment prohibitions against excessive force."
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Magdy, Sam
NEW! 06/14/19 2019 Egypt Demands Christie's Halt Auction of King Tut Statue June 11, 2019 Online at:
- "Egypt has tried to halt the auction of a 3,000-year-old stone sculpture of the famed boy pharaoh Tutankhamun at Christie's in London, while the auction house said its sale was legal.... Egypt has long sought to bring home antiquities it considers state property. Waziri said that in the past two years thousands of artifacts smuggled or taken out of Egypt illegally have been repatriated."
Magness-Gardiner, Bonnie
1998 Considerations on Creating an Archaeological Image Database Archaeology Data Service Online 3. Online:
- The author describes a pilot project of a database to distribute illustrations of archaeological artifacts to Customs agents to fight the illegal antiquities trade.
Majd, Mohammad Gholi
2003 The Great American Plunder of Persia's Antiquities, 1925-1941. Lanham, MD: University Press of America
- "Using recently declassified State Department records, Mohammad Gholi Majd describes the manner in which the U.S. government had guided and assisted American museums in acquiring vast quantities of Persian antiquities and archaeological finds..." (blurb)
- politically charged account with basic assumption that no antiquities should have left Iran for any reason
Maller, Ben
2011 Texas Drought Turns Weekend Warriors Into Looters of Artifacts, Fossils. The Post Game Friday, September 30, 2011 Online at
- "...with Texas locked in a record setting drought, the sinking water levels have turned the lake into something Indiana Jones would love. Texans have recently uncovered 8,000-year-old secrets, reports WFAA Dallas. Both fossils and Native American tools have turned up at Lake Whitney" and this abundance has attracted looters. The article notes there have been 30 arrests, and $30,000 spent on repairs.
Mallouf, Robert J.
1996 An Unraveling Rope: The Looting of America's Past. American Indian Quarterly 20(2):197-208. (HOT!)
- From the author: "This article discusses the history of archaeological site looting and explores the mechanisms through which individuals having a rudimentary interest in history sometimes evolve a looting mentality. The sometimes strained relationship between Native Americans and archaeologists caused by repatriation issues has tended to draw attention away from, and possibly exacerbate, problems of looting."
Maniscalco, Fabio
2005 Protection, conservation and exploitation of Palestinian cultural property. In Mediterraneum. Protection of cultural and environmental patrimony, vol. 5. Edited by F. Maniscalco. Naples: University L’Orientale of Naples
- problems in protection of cultural patrimony of Palestine
2004 Protection, conservation and exploitation of underwater cultural patrimony. In Mediterraneum. Protection of cultural and environmental patrimony, vol. 4. Edited by F. Maniscalco. Naples: University L’Orientale of Naples
- problems in protection of underwater cultural property
2002 La tutela dei beni culturali in Italia. In Mediterraneum. Protection of cultural and environmental patrimony, vol. 1. Edited by Fabio Maniscalco. Naples: University L’Orientale of Naples
- problems in protection of cultural property and theft of art in Italy
2002 Protection of cultural patrimony in war areas. In Mediterraneum. Protection of cultural and environmental patrimony, vol. 2. Edited by F. Maniscalco. Naples: University L’Orientale of Naples
- problems in protection of cultural property and theft of art in war areas
2000 Furti d’autore. Naples: Massa
- theft of art in Naples-Italy since the end of the WWII), realized in cooperation with the Italian Cmomando Carabinieri
Maniscalco, Fabio (ed.)
2007 Mediterraneum. World Heritage and War, vol. 3. Naples: University L\222Orientale of Naples
- problems and issues regarding the safeguarding and conservation of cultural heritage in warzones (English and Italian)
Maqbool, Aleem
(multimedia available) 2013 Egypt revolution brings golden age for tomb raiders. BBC News Africa edition 27 March 2013. Online at
- "Egypt's revolution has not only brought political upheaval, but also lucrative opportunities for illegal diggers hunting for antique treasures and gold." While police downplay the problem, looters are hitting many sites, including Luxor and around the Great Pyramids of Giza. "A decline in law and order has been very apparent across the country, with the security forces having lost both the fear and the respect that they had elicited before the events of 2011."
- includes video of Kent Weeks, Professor of Egyptology at the American University in Cairo
Margit, Maya
2018 The Global Fight Against Black Market Antiquities Intensifies. The Medialine July 1, 2018. Online:
- "While the global illegal antiquities trade might be booming, governments in several countries are increasing their efforts to combat it by refusing to borrow artifacts of dubious origin, archaeological experts told The Media Line. The growing push for verified provenance is part of a wider trend towards “clean exhibitions” at cultural institutions, which are trying to avoid getting embroiled in legal battles and supporting looters."
Mariam, Haile
2009 The cultural benefits of the return of the Axum Obelisk in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
2009 The cultural benefits of the return of the Axum Obelisk in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Martin, Rachel
(HOT!) (multimedia available) 2013 The River Thames, A Not-So-Secret Treasure Trove. Wisconsin Public Radio News April 7, 2013. Online at http://news.wpr. org/post/river-thames-not-so-secret-treasure-trove.
- includes a PODCAST. "...London tradition of so-called mudlarks who populate the riverbed when the tide is out.... Mudlarks have unearthed all sorts of things in the Thames . from Bronze Age ceremonial objects and 15th-century swords to tiny Roman statuettes and munitions from World War II.... But not everyone is thrilled with the work of the mudlarks. They're allowed to dig roughly 4 feet into the banks of the Thames . and that's angered archaeologists like Paul Barford. He says all that digging has destroyed the centuries-old layers of earth in which artifacts are buried and which helps give them a historical context."
Mashberg, Tom
(HOT!) 2014 Sale of Egyptian Statue By English Museum Draws Criticism. NY Times (ArtsBeat blog) July 11, 2014. Online at
- "A British museum's [Northampton Museum and Art Gallery] decision to sell a 4,400-year old-Egyptian statue for a surprising $27 million... has ignited an uproar in England over the propriety of the sale... a world record at auction for a work of ancient Egyptian art. The statue had been donated to the town in 1880 by the 2d Marquis of Northampton who had purchased it during a trip to Egypt in 1850, long before Egyptian laws, international treaties or British codes and regulations constrained such acquisitions.... While acknowledging the sale was legal, the Egyptian government, British museum officials and some residents of Northampton tried to block it on moral grounds."
- "...two British museum organizations said they will consider revoking the Northampton institution.s accreditation, putting at risk its ability to seek public funding" (U.K. Museum Draws Fire for $27-Million Sale of Artifact Philanthropoy Today July 14, 2014
Masse, W. Bruce and Linda M. Gregonis (HOT!)
1996 The art, science, and ethics of avocational archaeology: Alice Hubbard Carpenter: The Legacy and Context of a Southwestern Avocational Archaeologist. Journal of the Southwest 38(3):367
- The authors recognize the strong role avocationalists have played in archaeology, and their strength in communicating with the public.
Matsuda, David
1994 Looted Artifacts: Seeds of Change in Latin America. Anthropos 89:222-224.
- anthropologist studying cultural change in Latin America tags along with Maya huaqueros looting house mounds; notes use of agricultural metaphors like "seed", that artifacts are "a gift from the ancestors", and indigenes "practice looting as an adapative survival strategy"
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1978 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Europe. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 1, Acoma Books, Ramona.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1980 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in the United States. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 2, Acoma Books, Ramona.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1984 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Middle America. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 3, Acoma Books, Ramona.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1987 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 1. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 4, Verlag Von Fleming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1989 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 2. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 5, Verlag Von Fleming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1991 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 3. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 6, Verlag Von Fleming, Berlin.
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1993 Naranjo Stela 12 in Geneva. Mexicon 15(1): 6
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1994 Aguateca Stela 1 mutilated. Mexicon 16(2): 25
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1994 La Amelia Stela 1 fragments reunited. Mexicon 16(6): 112
Mayer, Karl Herbert
1995 Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance, Supplement 4. Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance 7, Academic Publishers.
Mayer, Robert G.
1997 letter to the editor of Toronto Life
rebuttal to "Behind this Door" Article by Elaine Dewar May 1997 Issue of Toronto Life
McAllister, Martin E.
1991 "Looting and vandalism of archaeological resources on federal and Indian lands in the United States" in Protecting the Past edited by George S. Smith and John E. Ehrenhard. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
McAltister, Martin E., J. Scott Wood, and Dorothy M. Goddard
1984 "Cultural Resource Law Enforcement in the United States responsibilities to the profession". In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 156-170. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the public
McDougall, Liam
2003 US accused of plans to loot Iraqi antiques. Sunday Herald - 06 April 2003
"Fears that Iraq's heritage will face widespread looting at the end of the Gulf war have been heightened after a group of wealthy art dealers secured a high-level meeting with the US administration."
McGimsey, Charles R., III
1984 The Value of Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 171-174. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the public
McGimsey, Charles R., III
1995 Standards, ethics, and archaeology: a brief history. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 11-13. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- mentions desire for ethical guidelines which led to founding of SOPA
McGimsey, Charles R., III, H.A. Davis, and C. Chapman
1995 SAA, SHA, SOPA, AIA discuss Register of Professional Archaeologists. SHA Newsletter 28(3):10-15.
- mentions development of ROPA
- see link below...
McIntosh, Roderick J., Tereba Togola, and Susan Keech McIntosh
1995 The Good Collector and the premise of mutual respect among nations. African Arts 28(4):60-69,110-111.
- about looting of Mali's cultural artifacts
McManamon, F.P.
1996 The Antiquities Act: Setting basic preservation policies. CRM Magazine 19(5):19-23.
- on federal preservation policies
1991 The many publics for archaeology. American Antiquity 56:121-130.
McNaughton, Patrick R.
1995 Malian antiquities and contemporary desire. African Arts 28(4):22-71.
- guest editorial
Meier, Barry and Martin Gottlieb
2004 An Illicit Journey Out of Egypt, Only a Few Questions Asked. New York Times Feb 23 International
- Ongoing looting in Egypt despite government regulations. In this case, the Pasenenkhons stela reaches the US only to be seized and its story reveals much about the looting industry. Online:
Meighan, Clement W.
1984 Archaeology: Science or Sacrilege? In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 208-223. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the public
Merewether, Charles
2003 Looting and Empire Grand Street 72: 82-94
Meskell, Lynn
particularly (HOT!) 2015 Gridlock: UNESCO, global conflict and failed ambition. World Archaeology 47(2) April 2015: 225-38 (DOI:10.1080/00438243.2015.1017598)
- Abstract: "Deliberations over World Heritage designation increasingly provide a platform for new political alliances, international tensions and challenges to global cooperation. How has this situation arisen in UNESCO, an organization dedicated to fostering peace, tolerance and international co-operation? Since we now face an ever more interconnected world and our problems are more global they require solutions that traverse nation-states and require them to work effectively together. Yet any decision to act or protect, especially during conflict, inevitably leads to multi-polarity, fragmentation and impasse. Drawing on Hale and Held.s theory of gridlock that underscores the failures of multilateralism across the UN generally, I suggest that World Heritage provides a salient example. Since UNESCO relies on the consent and participation of sovereign nations, their decisions often mirror the very lowest level of ambition to prevail. Case studies are drawn from recent conflict over World Heritage sites in Mali, Syria and Crimea."
Messenger, Phyllis Mauch (editor)
1989 The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- "The purpose of this volume is to present a range of perspectives on issues relating to the ownership and preservation of the artifacts of past cultures." (p. xix); includes perspectives of the "victims" (Case Studies), options in the cultural steward question, perceptions and conditions on cultural property regulations, and a round table on working out the differences (core of the volume was from a 1986 conference on ethics of collecting held in Minneapolis, others are from 1987 SAA Conference in Toronto, and several invited contributions)
- all articles are listed herein
Messenger, Phyllis Mauch
1989 Highlights of a Round Table Discussion and Some Recent Developments in the Cultural Heritage Arena. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.217-242. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- round table on working out differences
Meyer, Karl Ernest (HOT!)
1977 The Plundered Past: the Story of the Illegal International Traffic in Works of Art. Atheneum Press, New York.
- about the illegal trade in art and archaeological objects from 1900 to 1975, and mentions Elgin marbles (and Byron), Boston Museum's Raphael, Mayan and Etruscan tomb raiders, and collectors such as Leon Pomerance, Norton Simon, and Thomas Hoving; from Laura Pope Robbins: "This book is considered the best work on the topic of antiquities theft and trade for the general reader. It attempts to provide comprehensive documentation of the destruction and theft of the artifacts of the past. Within it are several extensive appendixes which include the United States Antiquity Legislation, a list of major art thefts from 1911-1972, and many other pieces of pertinent information. An extensive 24-page bibliography is also included."
Middlemas, Keith
1975 The Double Market: Art Theft and Art Thieves. Saxon House, Fanborough, UK.
- from Laura Pope Robbins: "This source is based upon information received from thieves, receivers, antique dealers, security agents, auction houses, private collectors, and journalists, as well as national police forces. It is indexed and makes use of cross-referencing. There is no bibliography, however, it contains some bibliographical material on a chapter-by-chapter basis."
Miglierini, Julian
2011 Mexico's struggle to stem looting of historic sites. BBC News 25 February 2011 Online at:
- "...authorities are looking at various ways of clamping down on this trade in relics of their nation's history... In some cases, inhabitants of Mexico's poor rural communities come across pieces and decide to sell them to earn extra income. The middlemen who buy the artefacts then offer the goods to private collectors or art traders. But the business is getting increasingly sophisticated, with criminals taking advantage of the lack of supervision of thousands of sites." (the criminals include professional looters)
Mihesuah, Devon A. (ed.)
2000 Repatriation Reader: Who Owns Indian Remains. University of Nebraska Press.
- (from the publisher): "the repatriation of Native American skeletal remains and funerary objects has become a lightning rod for radically opposing views about cultural patrimony and the relationship between Native communities and archaeologists. ... Native Americans and non-Native Americans within and beyond the academic community offer their views on repatriation and the ethical, political, legal, cultural, scholarly, and economic dimensions of this hotly debated issue" (case studies include Kennewick Man and Zuni Ahayu:da)
Miller, G.L.
1992 The second destruction of the Geldermalsen. Historical Archaeology 26(4):124-131.
Miller, Mark (multimedia available)
2015 Decaying and Looted Pompeii Gets a Big Infusion of Care from the Italian Government. Ancient Origins. August 14, 2015. Online at .
- "Pompeii... has been placed under the protection of the Italian government from degradation by the elements and looters, including possibly the organized-crime group the Camorra. There are numerous restoration and construction projects underway... The restorations of the ancient city are being carried out with a 130 million euro ($143 million) budget..." Includes pictures and video.
Mis, Alvaro Gálvez
1995 Sigue el saqueo en ciudades mayas de Petén. Prensa Libra, 22 de Julio de 1995, p. 8, Ciudad de Guatemala.
Montagne, Renee
(HOT!) 2011 'Chasing Aphrodite' And Other Dirty Art World Deals. NPR Morning Edition. Online:
- "...In award-winning reporting for the Los Angeles Times, journalists Jason Felch and Ralph Frammolino exposed the dramatic story of the Getty's underhanded art dealings led by their former antiquities curator, Marion True."
- The authors report that True is the first curator to be indicted for dealing in stolen antiquities. The morale: it is better to di splay borrowed treasures on loan from other countries than to own them outright.
- See Felch and Farmmolinoi Chasing Aphrodite: The Hunt for Looted Antiquities at the World's Richest Museum.
Morrison, Karl F.
1992 Ethics and Traffic in Stolen Goods: The Wronged Images of Lysi. Modern Greek Studies Yearbook 8:414-421
- review article
Moynihan, Colin
2019 Met Museum to Return Prize Artifact Because It Was Stolen. NY Times Feb. 15, 2019 Online at:
- "The Metropolitan Museum of Art built a substantial exhibition last year around a new acquisition, a golden-sheathed coffin from the 1st century B.C. that was inscribed for Nedjemankh, a high-ranking priest of the ram-headed god Heryshef of Herakleopolis. But the exhibit, “Nedjemankh and His Gilded Coffin,” shuttered earlier this week because the Met agreed to return the highly ornamented artifact to Egypt after investigators determined it had been recently plundered from that country. Museum officials said that they bought the object from an art dealer in Paris in 2017 and were fooled by a phony provenance that made it seem as if the coffin had been legitimately exported decades ago. But prosecutors with the Manhattan district attorney’s office presented the museum with evidence that suggested it had been looted from Egypt in 2011."
Muensterberger, Werner
1994 Collecting, An Unruly Passion: Psychological Perspectives. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Muñoz, J. Luján
1985 Acerca de la recuperación de varias esculturas mayas que salieron ilegalmente de Guatemala. Mesoamérica. 10(10): 459-470
Muñoz, J. Luján
1969 Algunos problemas sobre la protección de los bienes culturales de Guatemala. Antropología e Historia de Guatemala. 21(1-2): 3-21
Munjeri, Dawson
2009 The reunification of a national symbol in "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
- the Great Zimbabwe Bird
Munson, Cheryl Ann, Marjorie M. Jones, and Robert E. Fry
1995 GE Mound: An ARPA Case Study. American Antiquity 60(1):131-159.
Murphy, Larry E., Mary C. Beaudry, Richard E.W. Adams, and James A. Brown
1995 Commercialization: beyond the law or above it? Ethics and the selling of the archaeological record. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 38-41. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Muscarella, Oscar White
2009 The Fifth Column in the Archaeological Realm: The Great Divide. In Festschrift for Altan Cilingiroglu (Studies in Honour of Altan Cilingiroglu. A life dedicated to Urartu on the shores of the upper sea), edited by Haluk Saglamtimur et al. Istanbul. Pp. 395-406
2007 Archaeology and the Plunder Culture. International Journal of the Classical Tradition: 41(1/2): 221-234
2000 The Lie Became Great: The Forgery of Ancient Near Eastern Cultures. Groningen: Styx Publications.
- "An important expose of the scholarly and museum "forgery culture," which tacitly condones the looting of ancient sites and the fabrication of contexts for the objects acquired."
1991 Review and critique of Phyllis Mauch Messenger's "The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property?" American Journal of Archaeology 95: 342-344
1984 "Amateur Archaeologists" Letter to Editor Archaeology 37: 22-23
1981 Report and critique of IFAR Symposium on the International Protection of Cultural Property Journal of Field Archaeology 8: 86-88
1977-79 Three Congressional Record Publications of OWM's testimony regarding HR 3403: Serial 95-28 (1977): 86-88; Serial 96-52; Serial 96-52 (1979): 78-80
1977-78 Publications about OWM testifying before The United States Senate on May 12, May 24, 1977, and January 26, 1978 (for attendance see: Archaeology 30, 1977: 279; Journal of Field Archaeology 5, 1978: 98-100
1978 "Antiquities Legislation Debate" Archaeology 31: 60-61
- "note contra André Emerich"
1977 'Ziwiye' and Ziwiye: the forgery of a provenience. Journal of Field Archaeology 4:196-219.
- assemblage of NW Iranian artifacts constructed entirely on un-validated, un-provenienced, looted antiquities!
1976 "Antiquities Legislation Pending in Congress" Archaeology 29(4): 275-276
- "OWM supports plunder restriction legislation, contra antiquities collector Leon Pomerance."
1974 "Colloquium: The Antiquities Market" Paper Two Journal of Field Archaeology 1: 221-222
1973 "Antiquities and Collections: A Curator's Viewpoint" Association for Field Archaeology Newsletter 1(2): 2-5
Myers, Steven Lee and Nicholas Kulish (HOT!)
2016 'Broken System' Allows ISIS to Profit From Looted Antiquities. NY Times Jan. 9, 2016. Online at
- Highlights the barriers authorities face in curbing rampant looting and illegal antiquities sales by ISIS.
- "Laws around the world are weak and inconsistent, and customs enforcement can screen only a portion of what crosses international borders, according to officials and experts in trafficking. Long-established smuggling organizations are practiced in getting the goods to people willing to pay for them, and patient enough to stash ancient artifacts in warehouses until scrutiny dies down. Despite a near-universal outcry over the Islamic State.s actions, few countries have shown interest in imposing new restrictions to curb the booming trade in antiquities, estimated to be worth billions of dollars a year."


Nagin, Carl
1990 The Peruvian Gold Rush. Art and Antiques May, pp. 98-145.
1986 Patrons of Plunder Boston Review 5-25
Neary, John
1993 Project Sting: The latest tactic in the war on illegal artifact trading is paying off in federal convictions and a flood of information about dealers and their clients. Archaeology 46(5):52-59
- police action taken against archaeological looting
New Zealand Archaeological Association
1993 Code of Ethics, New Zealand Archaeological Association. Archaeology in New Zealand. 36(4):183
Newbert, David DeTar
1998 Selling counterfeits is a Crime. Prehistoric American 32(3):25.
- collector's view on fakes
Nichols, Deborah L, Anthony L. Klesert, and Roger Anyon
1989 Ancestral Sites, Shrines, and Graves: Native American Perspectives on the Ethics of Collecting Cultural Properties. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.27-38. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- case studies of "victim's perspectives"
Nickens, Paul R.
1991 "The destruction of archaeological sites and data" in Protecting the Past edited by George S. Smith and John E. Ehrenhard. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Niezen, Ronald
2000 Spirit Wars: Native North American Religions in the Age of Nation Building. Berkeley: University of California Press. More information:
- from the publisher: " accessible, concise survey of the disruption and dispossession of the religious life of North American indigenous peoples caused by Euro-American domination"... (includes a chapter called 'The Collectors')
Norskov, V.
2002 Greek Vases in New Contexts: The Collecting and Trading of Greek Vases: An Aspect of the Modern Reception of Antiquity. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.


Oldham, Jennifer
(HOT!) 2018 Oops! Federal officials divulge secret info about Native American artifacts. Reveal News July 12, 2018. Online at:
- "The Bureau of Land Management posted a 77-page report online that included unique identifiers for priceless artifacts as it prepared to auction the most archaeologically rich lands ever offered for industrial use. The report exposed ruins spanning 13,000 years of Native American history to vandalism and looting, and experts say the BLM violated federal regulations that prohibit publicly sharing information about antiquities."
Orson, Diane (HOT!) (multimedia available) 2007 Yale Returns Peruvian Antiquities NPR Morning Edition September 18, 2007. Online: (includes audio file)
- "Yale University agrees to return to Peru hundreds of artifacts from the Incan site of Machu Picchu. The objects have been at the center of a debate that has lasted almost a century [since they were excavated by archaeologist Hiram Bingham], and culminated last year when the government of Peru threatened to sue Yale to get the artifacts back." The National Geograhic Society encouraged Yale's Peabody Museum to return the artifacts after notes were discovered that showed Yale considere dthem to be owned by Peru.
Osten, Joslyn
2014 Denver Museum to Return Totems to Kenyan Museum. American Anthropological Association Blog January 6, 2014. Online at
- "...the Denver Museum of Nature and Science says it has devised a way to return the 30 vigango it received as donations in 1990 from two Hollywood collectors, the actor Gene Hackman and the film producer Art Linson...." to the National Museums of Kenya
Overstreet, Robert M.
1995 The Overstreet Indian Arrowheads Identification and Price Guide, 4th ed. Avon Books, New York.
Overstreet, Robert M. and Howard Peake
1991 The Official Overstreet Identification and Price Guide to Indian Arrowheads, 2nd ed. The House of Collectibles/Random House, New York.
- typical and popular artifact guides promoting collecting


Pal, H. Bhisham
1992 The Plunder of Art. Abhinav Publications, New Delhi.
- from Laura Pope Robbins: "This source focuses on the plunder of Indian religious artifacts. It discusses the psychological aspects of antique collectors who use illegal means to add to their collections and the psychological impact on the culture that loses its artifacts. Preventive measures are also discussed. There are three appendices which include the "Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property" adopted by the UN in 1970, reprints from newspapers and periodicals, and a table illustrating the acceptance of the UN's convention by 65 states. The index is not cross-referenced and is very short. This source also contains many illustrations of artifacts that have been stolen and mutilated."
Pappas, Stephanie
2015 'Lost' Treasure Ship Is Also a War Grave. December 15, 2015 Online:
- The recently discovered San Jose, a 300-year-old shipwrecked Spanish galleon, made headlines because of its billion dollar cargo and the treasure hunters who seek to claim it. Now the Columbian government have declared it a gravesite.
- Also see this article.
Parezo, Nancy J. and Don D. Fowler
Archaeological records preservation: an ethical obligation. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 50- 55. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Park, Isaac (HOT!)
2016 Oregon Militia Standoff Spotlights Federal-Tribal Quandary over Artifacts. The American prospect February 3, 2016. Online at:
- "Leaders of Oregon's Paiute tribe are demanding that authorities investigate whether the armed occupiers have stolen or damaged any of the protected artifacts housed at the [Malheur National Wildlife Refuge]."
Patience, Martin
2010 Nine held in China after emperor family tombs' raid. BBC News 26 November 2010. Online:
- "Nine people have been arrested after robbing the ancestral tombs of China's first Emperor Qin Shihuang, Chinese officials say...." (same tomb as the famous terracotta army)
Pelagatti, P. and P.G. Guzzo
1997 Antichita senza provenienza II: Atti del colloquio internazionale 17-18 Ottobre 1997, supplement to Bollettino d'Arte 101-102.
Pendergast, D.M.
1991 And the loot goes on: winning some battles but not the war. Journal of Field Archaeology 18:89-95.
- increased value of antiquities has lead to looting of more archaeological sites
Pendergast, David M. and Elizabeth Graham
1989 The Battle for the Maya Past: The Effects of International Looting and Collecting in Belize. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.51-60. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- case studies of "victim's perspectives"
Pereira, Ignatius
2014 Emergence of antiques triggers treasure hunt in Kollam. The Hindu February 21, 2014. Online at
- dredging to improve the Tangasseri harbour complex uncovered an "amazing array of antique artefacts" including Chinese coins, and have "triggered a treasure hunt". Artifacts have been sold for scrap and then immediately resold, and rumors of incoming antique dealers are discouraging finders from stepping forward
Perez, Venture R., Ryan P. Harrod, & Debra L. Martin (HOT!)
2009 Looting, Collecting and Selling Ancient Artifacts: Who Are the Victims? Anthropology News September 2009 p. 28.
- Nice summary of current state of public/media/local government sentiments in much of the US with almost half of the public feeling it is ok to loot public and private lands for personal gain. Mentions conviction of James Redd and James Shrader in US Four Corners.
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Perino, Gregory
1993 Points & Barbs. Central States Archaeological Journal 40(1): 49
- comments on professionalism and collecting, also see letters in response in CSAJ 1993 49(2): 59 & 67 by Paul Rubenstein for Corps of Engineers; by Jay Clark (avocationalist); and in CSAJ 1993 40(4): 160-1 by Wayne Porter
1992 Points & Barbs. Central States Archaeological Journal 39(4): 207
- comments on professionalism and collecting
Pettigrew, Rick
2008 The Looting of the Iraq Museum: An Interview with Donny George. May 25, 2008. The Archaeology Channel. Online:
- [paraphrased from site] ...the former Director-General of Iraqi Museums and keynote speaker at The Archaeology Channel International Film and Video Festival, May 2008, recalls the events of April 2003 when the Iraq Museum was badly vandalized after American forces entered Baghdad. He describes the damage inflicted there as well as to other Iraqi cultural heritage institutions and sites and emphasizes the importance of these events to all of humanity.
Phillip, Abby
particularly (HOT!) 2015 Famed explorer says he found the elusive .treasure. ship of Captain Kidd. Not so fast. Washington Post May 7, 2015 Online at:
- "Famed explorer Barry Clifford believes... that he has finally found the elusive Adventure Galley, the crown jewel of famed pirate Captain William Kidd. Clifford.s find will need to be verified... Clifford's handling of the discovery, by inviting the president of Madagascar and promptly handing the treasure over to local authorities will help to forestall any future battles over who owns whatever is eventually found... And the victory for Clifford is not in the treasure, but in adding another discovery to his name.... Clifford, once dubbed the 'Pirate Prince' catapulted to fame with the 1985 discovery of the Whydah and its treasure-laden ruins off the coast of Cape Cod. And last year, Clifford claimed to have found Christopher Columbus's Santa Maria.
- "The History Channel was present Thursday documenting the newest development in the long search for Captain Kidd.s flagship. And they have already arranged for everything found at the site to remain in the hands of the Madagascar government. The eight-part series will air later this year."
Pilkington, Ed
2015 Hobby Lobby investigated for trying to import ancient artifacts from Iraq. The Guardian October 28, 2015. Online at
- "Customs agents seized thousands of years-old tablets imported by owners of the Christian chain of craft stores and intended for the $800m Museum of the Bible."
Pitblado, Bonnie
2014 An Argument for Ethical, Proactive, Archaeologist-Artifact Collector Collaboration. American Antiquity 79(3): 385-400 Online:
Platt, Tony
2009 Grave Matters: A brief history of the desecration of Native American cemeteries in Humboldt County. North Coast Journal June 18, 2009. Online:
- "What you will not typically be told, or maybe you prefer not to know, is that most local 'Indian relics' preserved in university labs, museum display cases, private collections, and tourist attractions were taken from inside graves."
2009 Skullduggery GoodToGo. Online:
- "The Indian leader Goyathlay, popularly known as Geronimo, died in captivity and was buried at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, in 1909. This fact about his death is generally agreed upon. But the current location of his skull and where his remains should be buried are matters of a longtime and acrimonious dispute, and now a lawsuit that pits tribe against tribe, and the descendants of the man whom Teddy Roosevelt showed off in his 1905 Inaugural Parade against Yale’s most exclusive private club."
2006 Gen. Patton's loot LA Times April 4, 2006. Online:,1,6801205.story
- "The Huntington's copies of key Nazi papers are a historical prize whose own history needs to be officially cleaned up."
Plog, Fred
1984 The Ethics of Excavation: Site Selection. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 89-96. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the profession
Pokotylo, David
1999 Public Opinion and Archaeological Heritage: Views from Outside the Profession. American Antiquity 64(3): 400-eoa.
- public views of archaeology and heritage
Polk, Milbry and Angela M.H. Schuster (eds.)
2005 The Looting of the Iraq Museum, Baghdad: The Lost Legacy of Ancient Mesopotamia. Harry N. Abrams
- from Publisher's Weekly: "Over 12 chapters, varied contributors lightly detail the depth and breadth of the collection, presenting highlights in 284 illustrations (most in color) from the collection as it was, with some asides about pieces that have been "reported missing" or are otherwise no longer there.... [but] With its lack of a unified perspective and the inclusion of previously published material, the book has a quickly-stitched-together feel."
Potts, Lauren
2015 Digging for treasure: Is 'nighthawking' stealing our past? BBC News March 21, 2015 Online at:
- "Illegal metal detecting - or 'nighthawking' as it is more commonly known - is sweeping the spine of the east of England, heritage groups say, robbing us of our chance to examine the past and causing damage and strife to landowners. England's earliest settlements - areas such as Lincolnshire, Sussex, East Anglia and Kent - are some of those suffering the most at the hands of criminals churning up the land in the hope of finding valuable relics left by our ancestors. Hadrian's Wall in the Northumberland National Park is one of the most recent places to come under attack, with unlawful excavations being carried out at Steel Rigg and Peel Crags."
Povoledo, Elisabetta
2007 Getty to Return 40 Artifacts to Italy. NY Times August 1, 2007
- museum has agreed to return items Italy contends were looted, including "a statue of a cult deity usually identified as Aphrodite, one of the Getty's prized pieces"
Powell, S., C.E. Garza, and A. Hendricks
1993 Ethics and ownership of the past, the reburial and repatriation controversy. In Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 5, edited by M.B. Schiffer, pp. 1-42.
Preston, Douglas J.
1999. Woody's Dream. The New Yorker 75(34)(Nov 15):80-87.
- recent lithic fake scandal
1995 The Mystery of Sandia Cave. The New Yorker 71(16)(Jan 22):66-83
- draws doubts about Sandia and Hibben
1989 Skeletons in Our Museums' Closets. Harper's Feb 1989. Online:
- "Important article in popular journal, draws attention to role of museums in legitimating looting of human remains."
Pringle, Heather
2006 The Master Plan. Himmler's Scholars and the Holocaust. Viking Canada
- "Very well written; about a third of it deals with WW11 Nazi looting of museums and other cultural institutions."
Prott, Lyndell
2009 The ethics and law of return. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2


Raab, L. Mark
1984 Achieving Professionalism through Ethical Fragmentation: Warnings from Client-Oriented Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 51-61. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the profession
Raab, L. Mark
1984 Toward an Understanding of the Ethics and Values of Research Design in Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 75-88. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the profession
Ravenhill, Philip L.
1995 Beyond reaction and denunciation: appropriate action to the crisis of archaeological pillage. African Arts 28(4):56-8
- Recommends creation of a database of African (Mali) history to include information on stolen artifacts residing in American museums.
Reid, J. Jefferson
?? anyone know of an editorial on this topic...??
- editor of American Antiquity decided to stop publishing articles which might elevate value of looted antiquities
Register of Professional Archaeologists (ROPA)
n.d. Code of Conduct & Bylaws
Renfrew, Colin
2000 Loot, Legitimacy and Ownership: The Ethical Crisis in Archaeology. Duckworth Debates in Archaeology. London: Duckworth.
- (from back cover) "Professor Renfrew reviews some prominent recent scandals...The illicit antiquities trade has turned London along with other international centres into a 'thieves' kitchen' where greed triumphs over serious appreciation of the past. Unless a solution is found to this ethical crisis in archaeology, our record of the past will be vastly diminished. The book lays bare the misunderstanding and hypocrisy that underlie that crisis."
Renfrew, Colin (HOT!)
1993 Collectors are the real looters. Archaeology 46(3):16-17
- response to Ricardo Elia, Archaeology Jan-Feb 1993 review of his book (reprinted in 1996 - see above): Ricardo Elia's stance was that looting is caused by the market created by collectors, scholars, and museums. Renfrew feels that collectors cause more harm than scholars and museums since their purpose is pleasure rather than education.
Rice, Prudence
?? anyone know of an editorial on this topic...??
- editor of Latin American Antiquity decided to stop publishing articles which might elevate value of looted antiquities
Ridgway, Brunilde S. and Tamara S. Wheeler
1978 "editorial statement" American Journal of Archaeology 82:1.
- AIA editors resolve not to publish articles or reports based on artifacts acquired in contravention of UNESCO 1970 convention
Rieth, Adolf
1970 Archaeological Fakes. Praeger Publishers, New York.
Robinson, Walter V.
1998 Italy calls N.Y. museum's prized collection stolen. Boston Globe April 17 p.A01
- Italian government charges the Met is in possession of a stolen collection of 3rd Century BC Hellenistic silver artifacts from the Greek city-state of Morgantina in central Sicily
Robinson, Walter V.
1998 Museums' stance on Nazi loot belies their role in a key case. Boston Globe February 13 p.A01
- directors of four US museums promise reform and return of any works stolen during WWII, but at same time plan to overturn new laws regarding looted/stolen objects
Robles, Frances
2015 With Shipwreck Treasure Easier to Reach, a Duel Is On. NY Times November 30, 2015. Online:
- "At issue is whether private companies should be able to claim and profit from historic treasures.... In the case of the San Jose booty, commercial treasure hunters, financed in part by an adventure entrepreneur who runs tours to the Titanic, spent over $2 million and 10 years recovering portions of the treasure, only to see their permits questioned and bounty confiscated.... But the industry is engaged in a battle with academic marine archaeologists and Unesco, the Paris-based United Nations agency that tries to protect cultural treasures around the world. Critics say buried coins and loot should be studied and preserved in a museum, not sported around an investor.s neck."
- Also see this article.
Robson, E., L. Treadwell, and C. Gosden (eds.)
2006 Who Owns Objects: the Ethics and Politics of Collecting Cultural Artefacts. Oxford: Oxbow Books
Romboy, Dennis
1999 Pothunters have formidable foe. Deseret News February 04
- describes how a US Forestry Service detective solved a large-scale, case of pothunting where an entire prehistoric cave site in Utah was destroyed
Roop, Lee
(HOT!) 2013 Arrowhead hunters ready for 'world's biggest (illegal) Easter egg hunt' on federal lands. Space News from The Huntsville Times Online:
- when the Tennessee Valley Authority lowers water levels in the river system to make room for winter rainfall, public lands will become exposed to looters who illegally frequent areas adjacent to known archaeological sites -- "When the water goes down, "the world's largest Easter egg hunt" begins, in the words of Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge reserve officer Jason Vehrs."
Rose, J.C. & D. Burke
2004 "Making Money from buried treasure" Culture Without Context 14: 4-8
Rose, Mark and Ozgen Acar
1995 Turkey's war on the illicit antiquities trade. Archaeology 48(2):45-56.
- Turkey has been ravaged by collectors; takes a strong stance against US museums
Rosenswig, Robert M.
1997 Ethics in Canadian archaeology: an international, comparative analysis. Journal of Canadian Archaeology 21:99-114
- compares the Canadian Archaeological Association statement on ethics with those of other national and international associations
- also see Alison Wylie's comments in the same issue
Ross, Doran H.
1995 Disturbing history: protecting Mali's cultural heritage African Arts 28(4):1,6,9,10.
- "First Word" editorial section: about looting of Mali's cultural artifacts and this special issue of the journal
Rothfield, Lawrence
2009 The Rape of Mesopotamia: Behind the Looting of the Iraq Museum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2008 Antiquities under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection after the Iraq War. AltaMira Press.
- from the publisher: "details the disasters that have befallen Iraq's cultural heritage, analyzes why all efforts to protect it have failed, and identifies new mechanisms and strategies to prevent the mistakes of Iraq from being replicated in other war-torn regions."
Roxan, David and Ken Wanstall
1965 The Rape of Art: The Story of Hitler's Plunder of the Great Masterpieces of Europe. New York: Coward-McCann, Inc.
Royal Academy of Arts
1995 "Africa: the art of a continet": the dilemma of display African Arts 28(4):59.
- about looting of Mali's cultural artifacts and problems of a museum displaying antiquities
Rush, Laurie
(HOT!) 2012 Working with the military to protect archaeological sites and other forms of cultural property. World Archaeology 44(3) September: 359-377
- from the abstract... "It is essential to educate military personnel to prevent inadvertent damage to museums, works of art, archaeological sites, sacred places and other forms of cultural property. It is also critical that military strategists and planners take cultural property into consideration as they prepare for 'no-strike' listing and all possible operations."


Sahagun, Louis
(HOT!) 2012 Petroglyph thefts near Bishop stun federal authorities, Paiutes. Los Angeles Times November 18, 2012. Online:,0,6886011.story
- "At least four ancient petroglyphs were cut from cliffs at the Volcanic Tableland and dozens of others damaged in 'the worst act of vandalism ever seen' on federal lands in the area."
- also see this video.
Sanborn, Andrea
2009 The reunification of the Kwakwaka'wakw mask with its cultural soul. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Sassoon, David
1989 Considering the Perspective of the Victim: The Antiquities of Nepal. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.61-72. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- case studies of "victim's perspectives"
Satterwaithe, Linton, Jr.
1958, The Problem of Abnormal Stela Placements at Tikal and Elsewhere. Museum Monographs Tikal Report no. 3. University of Pennsylvania, Philadephia, Pennsylvania.
Schmidt, Peter R. and Roderick J. McIntosh (eds.)
1996 Plundering Africa's Past. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
- A number of chapters describe the theft of Africa's cultural heritage.
Schontzler, Gail
(HOT!) 2016 State demands Museum of Rockies put dollar value on fossils. Bozeman Daily Chronicle Jan. 3, 2016. Online at:
- "... the Museum of the Rockies is being pressed to estimate the dollar values on its fossil and fine arts collections, to comply with state insurance policy requirements."
- "Putting a dollar value on bones only encourages treasure hunters to dig up fossils, ignoring or destroying knowledge that scientists might glean from bones and their surroundings, and to sell them instead to the highest bidder. Putting a dollar value on the museum.s collections might also tempt someone in government someday to try to sell off the museum.s collections for cash."
Schuster, A. M. H.
1997 The Search for Site Q. Archaeology 50(5): 42-45
Schuster, A. M. H.
1997 A run for their lives. Archaeology 50(5): 47
Scovazzi, Tullio
2009 Legal aspects of the Axum Obelisk case. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Seetah, Krish
particularly (HOT!) 2015 'The Minister will tell the nation': the role of the media for archaeology in Mauritius. World Archaeology 47(2) April 2015: 285-98 (DOI:10.1080/00438243.2015.1017600)
- Abstract: "This article presents four short case studies detailing the breadth of media engagement with archaeology on the island of Mauritius. Beyond exemplifying the varied roles of the media for an archaeological agenda, these case studies are used to discuss how to better garner media attention, how it may be possible to benefit from those who use archaeological data, why archaeologists should do this and the value of being better managers of our media image. Ultimately, the article advocates greater control over our side of the relationship, and questions whether archaeologists are taking advantage of the power of the media to advance public archaeology."
Seligman, Thomas K.
1989 The Murals of Teotihuacan: A Case Study of Negotiated Restitution. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.73-84. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- case studies of "victim's perspectives"
Shanks, H.
1985 A radical proposal: archaeologists should sell ancient artifacts. Biblical Archaeology Review 11(1): 24.
- suggests some surplus artifacts should be sold to raise money
Shanks, H.
1985 Dubitante no more - BAR to accept ads for Near Eastern antiquities. Biblical Archaeology Review 11(4): 6-7.
- editors decide to accept ads which promote sale of antiquities
Shanks, H.
1985 The sale of artifacts by archaeologists - an idea whose time has come. Biblical Archaeology Review 11(6): 6-7.
- suggests some surplus artifacts should be sold to raise money
Shanks, H.
1990 Should you patronize our advertisers? Biblical Archaeology Review 16(5): 12-13.
- editorial questioning motivation of some of BAR's advertisers
Shanks, H.
1996 Who feeds the antiquities market? Biblical Archaeology Review 22(3): 12-13.
- examines what groups are responsible for encouraging the antiquities market, including museums
Shanks, H.
1996 Magnificent obsession. Biblical Archaeology Review 22(3): 22-64.
- about a collector and his large private collection
Shapiro, Daniel
1995 The ban on Mali's antiquities: a matter of law. African Arts 28(4):42-51.
- The US ban on the import of Mali's antiquities is ineffective because it does not prevent purchase by countries who do not follow the Convention. Practical steps to protect cultural property must address the various interests involved.
Shelton, Jon NEW! 06/14/19
2019 Germany returning Stone Cross artifact to Namibia May 17, 2019 Online at
- "A Berlin museum said it is returning the Stone Cross of Cape Cross, a key cultural artifact, to Namibia. The cross, placed on Namibia's coast by Portuguese explorers in 1486, is a symbol of the country's colonial past."
Shestack, Alan
1989 The Museum and Cultural Property: The Transformation of Institutional Ethics. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.93-102. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- options in the "cultural steward question"
Shott, Michael
2008 equal o nll roofht w ded I e vsbr cted: A proposal for conservation of private collections in American archaeology. The SAA Archaeological Record 8(2): 30-35. Online:
Sidibé, Samuel
1995 The pillage of archaeological sites in Mali. African Arts 28(4):52-55.
- Large-scale looting in Mali threatens their cultural patrimony and the potential to understand the area's history. International trade that encourages this problem is complex, including locals and networks of distributors. The public must become more sensitive to the value of this heritage.
Sifontes, Francis Polo
1983, La depredación arqueológia, tragedia de la cultura. Mesoamérica. 4(15): 277-280
Simpson, Elizabeth
2005 Tall Tales: Celts, Connoisseurs, and the Fabrication of Archaeological Context. Source XXIV:2 (2005): 28-41.
- "The historical and on-going efforts of scholars and curators to fabricate context for looted archaeological objects."
2004 A Perfect Imitation of the Ancient Work: Ancient Jewelry and Castellani Adaptations. In The Castellani and Italian Archaeological Jewelry edited by S. Walker and S. Soros, 201-226. New York: Bard Graduate Center.
- "The problem of "antiquarian archaeology," which was often essentially looting, and the legacy it has left us today."
1999 Review article: Ancient Gold Jewelry at the Dallas Museum; Ancient Jewelry and Archaeology. Journal of Design History 12:3 (1999): 293-97.
- "The problem of looted ancient jewelry, which is most of the ancient jewelry available for study today, and the poor scholarship that has resulted from the study of these objects in the absence of their archaeological context."
1997 The Spoils of War--World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property. New York: Abrams.
- "A comprehensive publication of the 1995 symposium of the same name, which includes a wide variety of articles pertaining to the looting that took place as a result of WW II; the Soviet trophy brigades; the controversy of "Priam's Treasure," taken out of Turkey by Schliemann and now in Russia; as well as 17 legal appendices relating to looting issues and the protection of cultural property."
Simpson, Moira G.
2009 Museums and restorative justice: heritage, repatriation and cultural education. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
1996 Making Representations: Museums in the Post-Colonial Era. London; New York: Routledge.
The author: "the text deals with cultural politics in museums, including repatriation issues and the establishment of indigenous and community museums, and covers developments in USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand".
Slapper, Gary
2009 Weird Cases: irresistible force meets immovable object. Times Online January 9, 2009. Online:
- "Steven Shaffer has been charged in America with the very rare felony of “removing an object of antiquity” and will stand trial later this year, facing a possible five year sentence. Although such a charge generally involves a small item such as a goblet, this case concerns something significantly larger: an eight-ton boulder that Shaffer is accused of removing from the bottom of a river running between Kentucky and Ohio." [called "Indian Head Rock"; also see Fred Kight article]
Smith, Alexander
2018 British Museum's Easter Island statue reignites debate about colonial plundering. NBC News Nov 25, 2018 Online at:
- In 1868, one of Easter Island's iconic "moai" statues was plundered by a British naval ship and given to Queen Victoria. The monarch gave it to London's British Museum, where it still stands 150 years later. Tourists love it, but the Rapa Nui people of Easter Island are begging the museum to return the statue, named "Hoa Hakananai'a". Tarita Alarcón Rapu, the governor of Easter Island, asked for it to be repatriated.
Smith, George S., John E. Ehrenhard (editors)
1991 Protecting the Past. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
includes the following (listed separately):
"The destruction of archaeological sites and data" by Paul R. Nickens
"Some dimensions of the pothunting problem" by Thomas F. King
"Looting and vandalism of archaeological resources on federal and Indian lands in the United States" by Martin E. McAllister
Society for American Archaeology
1996 Society for American Archaeology principles of archaeological ethics. American Antiquity 61(3): 451-452.
- SAA establishes its own code of ethics and standards (links to Web pages follow)
Sommerville, Quentin
2007 Ancient ship raised from S China Sea BBC News 21 December 2007 Online:
- "Chinese archaeologists have raised a merchant ship which sank in the South China Sea 800 years ago while transporting a cargo of precious porcelain. ... China has invested about $40m in this project, in the hope of reclaiming a part of the country's history, and this time ensuring it stays in Chinese hands."
Specht, Sanne (HOT!)
2007 Treasure hunt: Digging for trouble (Southern Oregon) Mail Tribune November 18, 2007. Online:
- "Backyard treasure hunters beware. A little-known Oregon statute makes it illegal for anyone to intentionally unearth artifacts more than 75 years old without a permit from the state — even on private property."
Spence, E. Lee
1997 Capitalism Versus Socialism in Underwater Archaeology (1992, revised 1997). Available online:
- poses the classic debate in economc terms, rather than 'looter' versus 'professional'; some commercial practitioners are cast as "capitalist arcaheologists" in contrast with government-employed "socialist archaeologists"
Squires, Nick
2015 Three frescoes stolen from Pompeii more than 50 years ago retrieved by Italy. The Telegraph May 26, 2015. Online at
- "A priceless collection of ancient Roman and other artefacts was returned to Italy... after a trans-Atlantic investigation into stolen or looted treasures being sold to universities, museums and private collectors in the United States. The hoard included three fragments of first century AD frescoes from Pompeii... as well as ancient Greek vases known as kraters, Etruscan pots, and bronze figurines. The frescoes ... were stolen from Pompeii in 1957..."
Stamatoudi, Irini
2009 Mediation and cultural diplomacy. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Stark, Mike
2009 Colorado man indicted in artifacts looting case. Aspen Times Wednesday, August 26, 2009 (from AP). Online:
- "A Colorado man who sold American Indian relics on the Internet is the latest person charged in a far-reaching federal investigation into the looting of ancient Southwestern artifacts."
Starn, Orin
2004 Ishi's Brain: In Search of America's Last 'Wild' Indian. New York: W.W. Norton
- From the publisher: "A chronicle of the search for the truth about the life and death of a legendary Native American. This absorbing new portrait of Ishi, wild man of Deer Creek, museum curiosity, and last of his tribe, will appeal to anyone interested in Native America, a story of science and scandal, and the life and legend of California's most famous Indian." (Ishi's brain was sent to the Smithsonian in 1916 where it was preserved in formaldehyde for their collection of human remains.)
Steponaitis, Vin
1998 Update on ROPA. SAA Bulletin 16(1):2,18.
SAA and SHA pass ROPA proposal - ROPA will now become a reality, an independent, non-profit organisation
for more background see article in SAA Bulletin 15(3):61-4 and the SAA Web site link(s) below
Stille, Alexander
2002 The Future of the Past. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
- contains a chapter on looting at Morgantina (Sicily), the Morgantina silver hoard at the Metropolitan Museum, and archaic sculptures once in the Templesman Collection.
Stone, Elizabeth C. (HOT!)
2008 Patterns of looting in southern Iraq. SAFE/Saving Antiquities for Everyone. 24 September 2007 Online:
- "The archaeological sites of Iraq, precious for their bearing on human history, became especially vulnerable to looters during two wars. Much of the looting evidence has been anecdotal up to now, but here satellite imagery has been employed to show which sites were looted and when."
Stuart, George E.
1989 Working Together to Preserve Our Past. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.243-252. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- round table on working out differences
Sturgis, Sue (HOT!)
2009 Alabama city destroying ancient Indian mound for Sam's Club. Facing South: The Online Magazine of the Institute for Southern Studies. August 4, 2009
- "City leaders in Oxford, Ala. have approved the destruction of a 1,500-year-old Native American ceremonial mound and are using the dirt as fill for a new Sam's Club, a retail warehouse store operated by Wal-Mart. ...But Oxford Mayor Leon Smith -- whose campaign has financial connections to firms involved in the $2.6 million no-bid project -- insists the mound is not man-made and was used only to 'send smoke signals'."
- also note the extensive reader discussion and commentary
Swanson, Charles R., Neil C. Chamelin, and Leonard Territo,
1992 Criminal Investigation 5th edition. NY: McGraw-Hill.
Robert Hicks "The chapter on the looting of archeological sites contains the best published guide on investigative methods for law enforcement officers that I know of."
2008 How powerful people avoid criminal labels: steroids, backdating and stolen museum artifacts Neurological Correlates Feb 18, 2008 (online).
- This blog entry discusses how white collar criminals avoid being labeled as criminals, correlating Jose Canseco's sports drug-use story with the theft and display of artifacts by museums, citing a 2007 legal case study by Mackenzie and Green
Swigart, Rob
2007 Stone Mirror: A Novel of the Neolithic. Walnut Creek CA: Left Coast Press.
- This novel/textbook tells parallel stories of Çatalhöyük (Neolithic village life and modern excavation), touching on archaeological politics and the forgery and illegal trading of antiquities, as well as exposes the conflict between the serious business of an archaeological excavation and the public fascination with unusual artifacts.


Talbot, Ann
2003 "US government implicated in planned theft of Iraqi artistic treasures" World Socialist Web Site 19 April 2003 Accessed Dec 8, 2006.
- implicates US government in looting of Iraqi museums
Tavernise, Sabrina
2009 Returned Artifacts Displayed in Kabul. NY Times October 6, 2009. Online:
- "...The National Museum was celebrating the return of about 2,000 artifacts that had been smuggled into Britain over the years of war in Afghanistan. British authorities confiscated the smuggled items and, after several years spent figuring out where the artifacts had come from, sent them back to Afghanistan in February."
Tay, Alice Erh Soon
1985 "Law and the cultural heritage". in Who owns the past? : papers from the annual symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities edited by Isabel McBryde, pp. 107-138. New York: Oxford University Press.
- addresses legal issues surrounding ownership of cultural artifacts, with international coverage of laws such as "Treasure Trove" and property rights
Taylor, Stephanie
2018 Ancient Artifacts Stolen 40 Years Ago in Alabama Recovered. US News Nov. 13, 2018 Online at:
- Moundville, Alabama: "The recent recovery of three Native American artifacts stolen nearly 40 years ago could be the thread that unravels the mystery of the greatest antiquities theft in this part of the world. Hundreds of pottery vessels, bottles, bowls, ornaments and jewelry items were stolen from the Erskine Ramsey Archaeological Repository at the University of Alabama's Moundville Archaeological Park in 1980. It was a shot in the dark when archaeologists and others contributed to a reward fund for information, which was announced in May. The publicity worked, leading to the recovery of three vessels in August."
Thomas, Suzie et al.
2016 Nazi memorabilia, dark heritage and treasure hunting as .alternative. tourism: Understanding the fascination with the material remains of World War II in Northern Finland. Journal of Field Archaeology 41(3) 2016: 331-343
- "Sites connected to the Second World War (WWII) are increasingly recognized as worthy of archaeological investigation. Researchers are also becoming aware that that the collectors market in objects connected to WWII, particularly those connected to Germany, is encouraging the stripping of conflict landscapes in the search for .collectors items.. Finnish Lapland is sometimes regarded as peripheral compared to more centrally located regions of Europe. Archaeologists working here nonetheless find themselves in direct competition with enthusiastic treasure hunters..."
Thorleifsen, Daniel
2009 The repatriation of Greenland's cultural heritage. In "Return of Cultural Objects: The Athens Conference" MUSEUM International No.241-2
Timpson, Trevor
2007 Fear and fury among the Marbles BBC News Viewed: September 12 2007. Online:
- computer restoration of the Elgin marbles by the British Museum, plus links to more stories in the BBC News
Tower, Howard B., Jr.
1994 Common ground: treasure hunters and archaeologists. Treasure Quest Magazine 5(3):69-71
- suggests professional treasure hunteres and archaeologists should work together (underwater)
Tower, Howard B., Jr.
1984 The battle for America's sunken treasure. Skin Diver 35(1):108-113
- from the article: "Extreme positions taken by individuals of both sides have clouded the major issues and built a wall of animosity difficult to breach by clear thinking individuals in both camps."
Trigger, Bruce G.
1989 A History of Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University Press.
- Useful for setting the context of archaeological method and practice.
Trinkley, Michael
1995. Site Records in the Southeast: an Overview of Preservation Efforts and Challenges. In David G. Anderson and Virginia Horak (eds), Archaeological Site File Management: a Southeastern Perspective. Readings in Archeological Resource Protection Series No. 3. Tallahassee, FL: Southeast Archeological Center.
- Discusses site preservation effors and challenges (human & natural) in the US Southeast.
- See for a text copy that includes tables but no graphics.
Trupp, Philip
1983 Ancient shipwrecks yield both prizes and bitter conflict. Smithsonian 14:79-89
- discusses both sides to underwater archaeology, incl. concerns over access, scholarly versus real value of artifacts, and the potential for a common ground
Tucker, Diane (HOT!)
2009 Brutal Destruction Of Iraq's Archaeological Sites Continues. Huffington Post September 21, 2009 04:46 PM. Online:
- "...A brutal plundering of this rich cultural heritage has been taking place in broad daylight ever since the 2003 invasion of Iraq. These days Ancient Mesopotamia looks more like a scene from the movie Holes." The article notes the extent of the catastrophe and the failure of the US government and military to prevent or contain the problem, and mentions Babylon, Samarra, & Umm al-Aqarib; includes a short slideshow
Twain, Mark
1869 The Innocents Abroad. Online version:
We brought not a relic from Ephesus! After gathering up fragments of sculptured marbles and breaking ornaments from the interior work of the Mosques; and after bringing them at a cost of infinite trouble and fatigue, five miles on muleback to the railway depot, a government officer compelled all who had such things to disgorge! He had an order from Constantinople to look out for our party, and see that we carried nothing off. It was a wise, a just, and a well-deserved rebuke, but it created a sensation...
Twigg, Deb
2009 Buying and Selling Artifacts...An American Tragedy. SRAC "River, Rocks, and Time" March 7, 2009. Online resource:
- The Executive Director of the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies asks why archaeologists should be allowe dto be involved with the selling of artifacts.
Tubb, K.W. (editor)
1995 Antiquities trade or betrayed, legal, ethical, and conservation issues. ArcheType Publications, London.
- increased value of antiquities has lead to looting of more archaeological sites
Tunnell, Curtis
1979 Don't Be a Knapping Vandal. Lithic Technology 8(1), also reprinted as untitled letter, Flintknappers' Exchange 2(2):2 (1979),and in Bulletin of Primitive Technology 5:71 (1993).
- site destruction by knappers seeking stone


Ulph, Janet and Ian Smith
2012 The Illicit Trade in Art and Antiquities: International recovery and criminal and civil liability. Hart Publishing
- "This text focuses upon the extent to which laws can protect vulnerable countries and considers what further steps could be taken in the future." It focuses upon UK, European, and international law, but there is some discussion of US law too.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
1976 Convention on the means of prohibiting and preventing the illicit import, export, and transfer of cultural property. Journal of Field Archaeology 3:217-220.
- the famous "1970 Convention" which protests illicit trade in antiquities etc.
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
1992 Vandalism: Research, Prevention and Social Policy. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-293. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Robert Hicks "Perhaps not the most useful publication for deriving investigative strategies for law enforcement officers, this pub nevertheless has insightful articles about vandalism, incl. at least one on vandalism of rock art."


Vachon, Michelle (HOT!)
2016 Statue.s Head, Body Reunited After Generations. The Cambodia Daily January 22, 2016. Online at
- "The head and body of a seventh-century Khmer statue were at last reunited on Thursday in Phnom Penh after an international agreement was brokered that allowed the head to be brought home to Cambodia from Paris, where it had spent the last 126 years. After over a decade of negotiations that involved France's Ministry of Culture and Cambodia.s Council of Ministers, the head was formally set on the body during a ceremony at the National Museum, where the complete statue will now reside." ("...his head was among the artifacts that were sent to France.with King Norodom.s show the importance of Khmer art, and from 1889 on, it was exhibited at the Musee Guimet...")
Vandiver, Pamela B.
1992 Materials issues in art and archaeology III: symposium held April 27-May 1, 1992, San Francisco, California, USA. Pittsburgh: Materials Research Society.
- Part I, "Cultural Heritage in Conflict" has important articles on "Monuments as Targets" etc.
Verma, Sravanth (HOT!)
2016 To prevent archaeological looting, scientist wants to crowdsource. Digital Journal. Feb. 21, 2016. Online at:
- "Parcak is the winner of the TED Prize 2016, and she will use her prize money of $1 million U.S. to implement a platform where everyone can participate in this work. Parcak's plan for an online platform calls for millions of people on the Internet to do what she does, analyze satellite imagery for clues to archaeological sites. This way, she believes we can uncover humanity's past much quicker."
Vidhani, Girish
2018 Sunken Treasure ICO Officially Declared $53 Million Fraud: Interpol Help Seeked. Cryptoground Aug 6, 2018. Online at:
- "With the rise of cryptocurrencies, there has also been a rise in cryptocurrency related crimes. ICO scams are one of the most common forms of crypto-crimes. Companies raise funds and then abscond. The latest example of this is the ‘Sunken Treasure ICO’ which has been making news in South Korea ... Reportedly, the ICO has scammed over $50 Million from about 124,000 people in the country. ... South Korean treasure hunting firm Shinil Group stated that they have found the sunken treasure of Dmitrii Donskoi, a Russian ship which sunk in 1905 during the war between Russia and Japan - which has gold worth $133 Billion. Based on this gold, Shinil Group announced an ICO pre-sale. However, after an investigation was launched against them by the Financial Supervisory Service of South Korea, the company withdrew their claims. Nevertheless, the ICO pre-sale had already begun and the company managed to dupe over 100,000 people."
Virtannen, Michael
2013 Assyrian gold tablet must go back to Germany, NY court rules. Science Nov. 14, 2013. Online at:
- "In a ruling rejecting any claims to the "spoils of war," New York's highest court concluded Thursday that an ancient gold tablet must be returned to the German museum that lost it in World War II. The Court of Appeals unanimously agreed that Riven Flamenbaum's estate is not entitled to the 3,000-year-old Assyrian relic, a 9.5-gram (0.34-ounce) tablet smaller than a credit card...."
Vitelli, Karen D.
1981 The ethics of collecting: afterthoughts on the responsibilities of archaeologists. Journal of Field Archaeology 8:88-89.
Vitelli, Karen D.
1981 "Editorial Note" American Journal of Archaeology 85:343.
- AIA editors resolve not to publish reviews of books based on artifacts acquired in contravention of UNESCO 1970 convention
Vitelli, Karen D.
1982 Antiquity assets. Journal of Field Archaeology 9:274-276.
Vitelli, Karen D.
1984 The International Traffic in Antiquities: Archaeological Ethics and the Archaeologist's Responsibility. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 143-155. New York: The Free Press.
- responsibilities to the profession
Vitelli, Karen D.
1996 Archaeological Ethics. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press.
- collection of Archaeology Magazine articles written for a general audience on archaeological ethics (looting, reburial, repatriation issues), plus summaries, discussion questions, suggestions for further reading, and a resource guide should make this a useful teaching tool


Wagner, Erika
1987 The Future of the Past in Latin America. Journal of Field Archaeology. 14: 107-110
Warick, Jason
2019 NEW! 06/07/19 Saskatchewan First Nations want road project stopped after rare artifact discovery. CBC News June 5, 2019 Online at:
- an obsidian flak "is at the centre of a controversial road project in central Saskatchewan.... Construction of a new gravel road is set to be built west of the town of Biggar on June 10 despite the discovery of these and other artifacts left there up to 10,000 years ago. First Nations were not notified of the discovery, and were not told what became of the excavated artifacts. CBC News traced the obsidian to a Saskatoon archeological firm contracted by the provincial government to do the work."
Warren, Karen J.
1989 A Philosophical Perspective on the Ethics and Resolution of Cultural Property Issues. In The Ethics of Collecting Cultural Property: Whose Culture? Whose Property? edited by Phyllis Mauch Messenger, pp.1-26. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
- case studies of "victim's perspectives"
Watkins, Joe
2000 Indigenous archaeology, American Indian values and scientific practice. Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press
- covers collection, preservation, cultural property, repatriation, and anthropological ethics
Watkins, Joe, Lynne Goldstein, Karen Vitelli, and Leigh Jenkins
1995 Accountability: respondibilities of archaeologists to other interest groups. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 33-37. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
White, Patrick
2006 Stolen from US history: its artifacts. Christian Science Monitor 04/26/2006 (online)
- "...Indeed, US officials say the brazen looting of ancient native-American artifacts, Civil War mementos, and other valuable relics is reaching epidemic proportions."
Whitehurst, Lindsay
(HOT!) 2016 Family to appeal dismissal of artifact-looting arrest suit. Jan. 14, 2016. Online at:
- "The family of a southern Utah doctor who killed himself a day after his 2009 arrest in a multistate artifact-looting investigation plans to appeal the dismissal of their wrongful death lawsuit." (about convicted looter, James Redd)
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Whittaker, John C.
2004 American Flintknappers: Stone Age Art in the Age of Computers. University of Texas Press, Austin.
- includes material on collectors, markets, fakes, effects on arch record and looting
Whittaker, John C.
1990 Going Once! Going Twice! Iowa Archaeological Society Newsletter 40(3):1-3.
- essay on artifact auction, collections, and ethics
Whittaker, John C., and Michael Stafford (HOT!)
1999 Replicas, Fakes, and Art: The Twentieth Century Stone Age and its Effects on Archaeology. American Antiquity 64(2):203-214. Reprinted 2000 in The Arkansas Archaeologist 39:19-30 (1998 issue).
- markets, collecting, modern knappers
Wight, Ed (multimedia available)
2015 Looters dig up Holocaust victims' graves at Nazi death camp Sobibor in hunt for gold. 2 november, 2015 Online at:
- Archaeologists from the museum at the Sobibór Nazi death camp in south-east Poland found the sites have been disturbed by suspected gold hunters within the last two years. Looters have dug up mass graves belonging to Jewish WWII holocaust victims hunting for gold and other precious metals on the victims. Pictures and video are provided.
Wildesen, Leslie E.
1984 The Search for an Ethic in Archaeology: An Historical Perspective. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp. 3-12. New York: The Free Press.
- background to ethics question
Wilson, David
1985 "Return and restitution: a museum perspective". in Who owns the past? : papers from the annual symposium of the Australian Academy of the Humanities edited by Isabel McBryde, pp. 99-106. New York: Oxford University Press.
- from the article: "The purpose of this short paper is to put the case of the great international museums against claims for the return or 'restitution' of cultural property."
Wilson, Thomas
1888 Fraudulent Spear or Arrowheads of Curious Forms. American Naturalist 22:554-555.
- early lithic fakes
Winter, Joseph C.
1984 The Way to Somewhere: Ethics in American Archaeology. In Ethics and Values in Archaeology, edited by Ernestene L. Green, pp.36-50. New York: The Free Press.
- background to ethics question
Wiseman, James
1984 Scholarship and provenience in the study of artifacts. Journal of Field Archaeology 11(1):67-77.
- scholarship concerns with publication involving museum/private collection artifacts with unknown provenience; several cases are examined
Woodall, J.N. (editor)
1990 Predicaments, pragmatics, and professionalism: ethical conduct in archeology. Special Publication No. 1. Society of Professional Archeologists, Oklahoma City.
- collection of papers about current ethical issues in North American archaeology
Wright, Joanne
2018 Returning indigenous remains to their ancestral lands, thanks to ancient DNA. EurekAlert! Dec. 19, 2018. Online at:
- "Genomic analyses can reveal the geographic origins of indigenous Aboriginal Australian remains currently held in museums, a new study reports. Critically, this could allow these remains to be returned to their original communities - a result Aboriginal Australians have fought to achieve for decades."
- news release of a scientific paper "Ancient nuclear genomes enable repatriation of Indigenous human remains" in 4(12) Science Advances (
Wylie, Alison (HOT!)
1995 Archaeology and the antiquities market: the use of "looted" data. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 17- 21. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
- ethical questions regarding use of date from looted sites or commercial excavations
Wylie, Alison
1996 Ethical Dilemmas in archaeological practice: looting, repatriation, stewardship, and the (trans)formation of disciplinary identity. Perspectives on Sciences 4(2):154-194.
- four examples show how entanglement of professional and commercial activities have made clear distinction between scientific and non-scientific archaeology difficult; thorough discussion of issues raised about use of data from looted or commercial contexts in research and publication
Wylie, Alison
1997 Contextulaizing ethics: comments on ethics in Canadian archaeology by Robert Rosenswig Journal of Canadian Archaeology 21:115-120
- comments on Robert Rosenswig's article in same issue
Wright, Alice P.
particularly (HOT!) 2015 Private property, public archaeology: resident communities as stakeholders in American archaeology. World Archaeology 47(2) April 2015: 212-24 (DOI:10.1080/00438243.2015.1025911)
- Abstract: "[US] sites on private lands have few legal protections, and are thus at risk of damage or destruction. To alleviate these risks, archaeologists must engage thoughtfully with private property owners and develop strategies to promote site stewardship..... I discuss the unique challenges of engaging a resident community in archaeological research, and the potential of such engagement for fostering archaeological stewardship. Specifically, I use theories of place attachment derived from environmental psychology to explore how resident communities may be encouraged to empathize with and protect the archaeological records of past people."
Wright, William
1995 Bring beauty back to Mali African Arts 28(4):84-89,112.
- about looting of Mali's cultural artifacts


Yardley, William
2009 Utah Town Unsettled by Doctor’s Suicide and an Inquiry on Indian Artifact Looting. NY Times June 20, 2009. Online:
- "...even as residents of Blanding have joined in grief, the circumstances of Dr. Redd's death have shocked this tidy little town and threatened the delicate cross-cultural balance here that he helped preserve. Dr. Redd, 60, was found dead of a suicide a day after federal prosecutors charged him, his wife and 22 others with stealing, selling and trading Indian artifacts from the ancestral lands that stretch out from here in every direction."
"Many whites say Blanding, which had been raided before, has been unfairly singled out in a region where universities and museums once paid residents to dig up artifacts. Residents, including Mr. Carroll, often grew up collecting objects as a hobby and still stumble upon arrowheads. (Mr. Carroll said he stopped collecting more than 30 years ago.) Many expressed outrage that residents were being portrayed as “grave robbers."
- search this page for "Redd" to find additional stories on this topic
Yasim, Asim
2019 Archaeology director misappropriated precious antiques, sculptures: NAB sources. The News February 17, 2019 Online at:
- Pakistan's National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has arrested Director Archaeology and Museums Dr Abdus Samad for corruption, making illegal appointments and misappropriation of antiques, sculptures and other valuable antiques. These claims are contested by others, including recently retired NAB Chairman Javed Iqbal and Prime Minister Imran Khan.
- also see Detained archaeologist not produced before NAB chief (February 19, 2019)
- also see NAB gets five-day remand of archaeology director (February 26, 2019)
Yates, Donna
2006 South America on the Block : the changing face of pre-Columbian antiquities auctions in response to international law. Thesis (Mphil). Cambridge: Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge.
Yourd, William J.
1984 Going ... Going ... Gone? Archaeological Observations Amidst the Destruction of the Bryan Site-Complex, 1854-1980. Minnesota Archaeologist 43(2):7-20.
- description of what may have been the largest Mississippian Tradition village site in Minnesota but has been subjected to decades of plowing, gravel quarrying, roadwork, and looting


Zander, Caroline M.
1996 The Antiquities Act: regulating salvage of historic shipwrecks. CRM Magazine 19(5):28-32.
- on federal preservation policies and marine salvage
Zimmerman, Larry J.
1995 Regaining our nerve: ethics, values, and the transformation of archaeology. In Ethics in American Archaeology: Challenges for the 1990's, edited by M.J. Lynott and A. Wylie, pp. 64- 67. Special Report. Society for American Archaeology, Washington, D.C.
Zimmerman, Larry J., Karen D. Vitelli, & Julie Hollowell-Zimmer (eds.)
2003 Ethical Issues in Archaeology. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press
- Focus is on professional obligations to conserve the archaeological record; to inform and collaborate with diverse publics, and to deal fairly with others. Some chapters recount personal experiences with conflicting moral issues, others evaluate controversial practices. Included are new obligations; e.g. the role archaeologists can play in reducing Third World by turning sites into sustainable, local economic resources by attracting tourism or at least sustaining long-term field projects.

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

D. Government Action & Legislation
* Cultural Heritage - Law (meta-site)
by Clist Bernard <>

* Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism Indigenous Resource Protection Act
"The [Act] is offered to assist tribal leaders and attorneys when a Tribe desires to protect itself and its people by taking control of research conducted on its Reservation. It may be copied, adapted, and adopted freely. The appendices can also serve as stand-alone documents in the case of tribes that have not adopted legislation like this Act."
* United States Federal Bureau of Investigations
National Stolen Art File
- only list the major cases
* United States State Department - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
International Cultural Property Protection site
The Problem of Pillage (Senate Report No. 97-564 commenting on the implementing legislation for the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Cultural Property)
Recent Reports of Looting, Theft, Prosecution, and Recovery on the World Wide Web
List of US Agreements, Emergency Actions, and Federal Register Notices
Efforts to Protect Cultural Property Worldwide
Current and Expired Import Restrictions Under the Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act
Image Database with "illustrations of materials subject to import restriction"

Antiquities Act of 1906
Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (implements 1970 UNESCO Convention)
Archaeological Resources Protection Act (ARPA) strengthened the permitting procedures required for conducting archeological fieldwork on federal lands, originally mandated by the Antiquities Act, and also establishes more rigorous fines and penalties for unauthorized excavation on federal land
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA)
National Abandoned Shipwreck Act
National Stolen Property Act
(used to recover stolen property)
Archaeological and Historical Preservation Act of 1974 (AHPA)
(or Moss-Bennett Act, or Archaeological Data Preservation Act) fights to preserve archeological resources during development, but it is broader in scope, calling for the "preservation of historical and archeological data (including relics and specimens) which might otherwise be irreparably lost or destroyed as the result of "any federal construction project or federally licensed activity or program."
National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA)
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended
National Historic Sites Act of 1935
"This Act declares it a federal policy to preserve historic and prehistoric areas of national significance and establishes the National Historic Landmarks program. It also empowers the Secretary of the Interior to "secure, collate, and preserve drawings, plans, photographs, and other data of historic and archeologic sites, buildings, and objects."
Museum Properties Management Act of 1955
"This Act authorized the Secretary of the Interior through the National Park Service to preserve the objects found in individual national parks and provide public access to those materials through museums. The Act, as amended in 1996, gives the NPS legal authority to "acquire collections through donations and purchase and to loan and and exchange collections."
National Pre-Columbian Monumental and Architectural Sculpture and Murals Statute
(restricts US imports lacking certification by country of origin)
Reservoir Salvage Act of 1960
HR 915: Cultural Conservation of the Crossroads of Civilization Act
(authorizes the US President to take certain actions to protect archaeological or ethnological materials of Afghanistan -- stalled in Congress)
* United States National Park Service
National Register of Historic Places
Relevant [US] Laws, Regulations, Policies, & Ethics
* National Trust for Historic Preservation
* State Historic Preservation Legislation Database
Coverage includes all fifty states, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
From the page: "comprehensive listing and narrative summaries for all state legislation or state constitution articles that contain specific references to: historic properties; archeological sites or materials collected from archeological sites; or culturally significant unmarked human burials and associated burial objects."
* State of Florida Division of Historic Resources Bureau of Archaeological Research
draft of its Submerged Cultural Resource Management Plan (select the box labeled SCR draft plan)
two appendices at the end of the plan detail U.S. and international laws, policies, and programs
* United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
cultural heritage law (by country)
legal instruments
International Convention on Ownership of Cultural Property
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970) also available here.
Recommendation for the Protection of Movable Cultural Property (1978)
Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

E. Websites & Online Forums

Online Forums:

* (HOT!) Archaeological Ethics - Archaeological Ethics
- This popular community site for archaeologists has a group dedicated to discussing ethics. (Registration is required.)
* ArchaeoSeek: A Social Network for Archaeologists
- has a discussion group focused on the dissemination of information and discussion of archaeological ethics

Loss/Theft Reporting Sites:

* American Rock Art Research Association (ARARA)
- post Action Alerts, Success Stories, and Endangered Rock Art
* Art Loss Register
- "...the world's largest private international database of lost and stolen art, antiques and collectibles that provides recovery and search services to collectors, the art trade, insurers and law enforcement through technology and a professionally trained staff of art historians"
* (HOT!) Art Theft Central Blog (Mark Durney)
- "Discusses and contextualizes recent cultural property news in addition to including a unique academic perspective on art crime."
* Art Theft Program (US Federal Bureau of Investigation)
- geographic database of theft notices and recoveries, news stories, and "top ten art crimes" page
* Association for Research into Crimes Against Art (ARCA)
- "A think tank that uses interdisciplinary research and analysis techniques to examine the phenomenon of art crime through history and across national borders in order to better protect cultural heritage."
* Cultural Plunder by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (Database of Art Objects at the Jeu de Paume)
- "...database lets Holocaust survivors and their relatives search details of more than 20,000 artworks stolen from Jews during World War II." (from BBC News article)
- joint venture of Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany and United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
* Find Stolen Art
- "...private organisation in Manchester England... to help combat international Fine Art and Antiquities theft"
* International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)
- "the federation of national and regional organizations promoting the study of palaeoart and cognitive archaeology"; their site promotes conferences and activities to protect cultural heritage sites
* Monuments Men Foundation
- this site preserves "the legacy of the unprecedented and heroic work of the men and women who served in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section, known as Monuments Men, during World War II", and provides information about items looted by the Nazis, as well as ways to report finds
* Museum Security Network and their reporting stolen property page
* SAFE/Saving Antiquities for Everyone
- billed as "The SAFE online resource that highlights issues related to the vulnerability of our shared cultural heritage to looting and the illicit antiquities trade."
* SAFE CORNER: Cultural Heritage in Danger
- blog established by SAFE/Saving Antiquities for Everyone, billed as "comments, corrections, rants and raves"
* University of Pennsylvania Museum's Cultural Heritage of Iraq
- site about lost culture of Iraq including photo gallery and related links
* SalvoWeb and their Theft Alerts page
- covering architectural or garden antiques and reclaimed building materials
* Stolen Art (Jonathan Sazonoff)
- "Art Theft / Most Wanted Art / Recovery Project - Search for the World's Most Wanted Art"
* Stolen Works of Art (Interpol)
- news stories and recent theft reports, especially stolen Iraqi National Museum pieces
- "... help victims of theft to publicize loss... sent to subscribing police forces and recovery agencies... sent dealers to help avoid buying stolen items... used by auctioneers (Sotheby's, Gaze and Railton) to check lots"
- "Dedicated to the reporting and recovery of antiques and collectibles."

Miscellaneous Sites & Pages:

* Aidonia Treasure
by David Gill, one of the case studies for C. Chippindale and D. Gill's 'Material consequences of contemporary collecting'
* ALTACO: Antique Luzon Tribal Art Connoisseurs Organisation
- in support of Luzon people's heritage rights; includes some commercial information
* Anasazi Digs
Controlled excavation at Montezuma Village, Monticello, Utah, one of the largest privately owned archaeological sites in the United States sponsored by the landowners due to threat of extensive erosion.
- "All excavations are conducted in accordance with applicable state and Federal laws pertaining to cultural remains and/or burials. Fees for excavation follow two structures. The first option allows the individual to legally retain the artifacts for private ownership. The second option allows the artifacts to remain in the Ransdell collection for display in their on-site museum facility."
* Archaeological Conservancy
- "A national, non-profit organization formed in 1980 to identify, acquire, and permanently preserve the most significant archaeological sites in the United States" by buying up the land they lie on...
* Archeological Resource Protection Listing of Outlaw Treachery (LOOT) Information Clearinghouse (NPS)
contact: Richard Waldbauer <>
* Archaeology, Antiquities, Theft, and Looting
an "Electronic Bibliography of URL's" compiled by Jonathan Sazonoff <>
* Art Loss Register
- Dedicated to "helping the victims of art theft", this is the "largest private database of stolen and missing works of art, antiques and valuables in the world". Stolen items are registered and ideally later recovered by responsible agencies using their information.
* ArtGuardian.News
fortnightly online magazine about art and the internet, the protection of possessions, and thefts prevention
(ceased production with number 15, Dec 2001 but is searching for more funding)
* Artifact Collection (Southwestern Archaeology)
"Artifact collections should be made only with a precise research plan." (why artifact provenience is so important...)
by Brian Kenny
* Bending Contexts: A Historical Perspective on Relic Collections (HOT!)
by David S. Rotenstein <>
* Conserving and Managing: Our Nations Archeological Resources at Risk (NPS)
- "Casual, haphazard, or unsystematic digging or surface collecting of an archeological site is wrong."
* Ethics and the Archaeologist (meta-site)
by K. Kris Hirst <>
* Global Retrieval, Access and information System for Property items (GRASP)
- From their Web site: "high-technology solutions to the problem of tracking down lost and stolen Art and Antiques". The project works at ways to uniformly describe stolen and recovered artifacts, as well as to link databases internationally.
* Institute of Art and Law
"The Institute ... is a small institution that works at the interface of art and law. It also publishes a journal in conjuction with Kluwer Law called Art, Antiquity and Law.
* International Council of Museums (ICOM) Red List ("aims to inform museums, art dealers, and police and customs officials about the systematic theft to which certain types of cultural property fall victim")
bibliography of ICOM/UNESCO publications
* International Conference, Rutgers University, 30 October - 1 November, 1998: Art Antiquity and the Law: Preserving our Global Cultural Heritage
- Participants passed a set of six resolutions, called the Rutgers Resolutions.
* International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR)
IFAR publishes IFAR Journal (previously IFAR Reports).
* LOOTED ART: First Internet Research Catalog
- information site on looted art
* Looting Matters!: The material and intellectual consequences of collecting antiquities
maintained by Chris Chippindale <> and David Gill <>
* McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research's Illicit Antiquities Research Centre
- "...has been established in response to concerns expressed about the loss to our knowledge of the past caused by the illicit excavation of archaeological sites." Its goals are to elevate public awareness, encourage new legislation and codes of conduct, monitor the sale and transfer of illicit antiquities, and develop an overview of existing legislation. Included are their journal, Culture Without Context, and daily updates of the illicit trade news.
* Museum Security Network
- "The purpose of this website, which offers all its services free of charge, is twofold: to collect and disseminate information about incidents and trade involving stolen cultural property" and "to offer a source of related information, e.g., publications, security products, safety and salvage plans, addresses of and links to related organizations."
* National Strategy for the Federal Archeology Program
- "In 1990, the Secretary of the Interior provided guidance on topics for special emphasis by federal agencies with archeological programs."
* News and Information about the Stealing and Sale of Afghan Archeological Treasures
part of Afghanistan Today, coordinated by Abed Afghan <>
* (HOT!) Open Letter To Arrowhead Hunters (#172 of Random Acts of Science blog, April 30, 2013, by ArcheoWebby
- a simple rationale why digging, prospecting, or even just casual surface collection of arcaheological sites is wrong
* Politics of Collecting and Exhibiting African Art
information about Bedu African art including thoughts on exhibition, designed by Karel Arnaut with additional text by Elizabeth Dell
* Register of Professional Archaeologists (ROPA)
* Repatriation Issues in Archaeology Links
- by ArchæoLogic Communications
* SalvoWeb
* Shield of Public Pride: A Malian Community Confronts Traffickers in Its Past (1995) UNESCO-ICOM.
by McIntosh, Roderick
* Sitewatch: Protecting the Nations Archeological Heritage
- a NPS service
- "A report from 10 European countries which have been affected by art looting during and after WW II... published by the German Coordination Office of the Federal States for the the Return of Cultural Property."
* Society for American Archaeology (SAA)
Standing Committee on Ethics
"Our formal charge is promoting discussion and education about ethical issues in archaeology, and proposing revisions, as necessary, of the Principles of Archaeological Ethics. The committee is not charged with enforcement powers or responsibilities."
The committee will sponsor a thrice yearly feature section in the SAA Bulletin, starting in Volume16, called "From the Ethics Committee".
* Society to Prevent Trade in Stolen Art
- from Laura Pope Robbins: "STOP is a newly founded nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C. At present, it is organizing several different services which will include a lecture series; a research library; a referal program that will link victims of art crimes with detectives, appraisers, and insurance companies; an on-line database of pre-1987 auction house records; and a BBS where people can post questions, concerns, and converse with others concerned with art theft."
* Sources of Information on Antiquities Theft (HOT!)
by Laura Pope Robbins <>
* Southeast Archeological Center Readings in Archeological Resource Protection Series (SEAC)
(items are listed in this bibliography)
* Stolen Stones: The Modern Sack of Nineveh (Archaeology Online)
by John M. Russell
- describes artifacts stolen from Nineveh's museum
* Theft Alerts (SalvoWeb)
- from Laura Pope Robbins: "This site is meant to help "combat international Garden Statuary and Architectural Antique crime" by alerting dealers and providing them with information that will lead to the interception of stolen items. It is a wonderful site which gives information on the place and date of theft, a description of the item, a Crime Reference Number, and who to contact. It also includes a note which lists the source of the original information. It is extremely current."
- Free reporting of theft and recovery of objects. Searchable database includes Indian artifacts, as well as more traditional antiques and collectibles. Education section contains information on theft prevention, appraisals, and auctions. Registered users can be notified of thefts in specific subject and geographic areas. [as listed by]
* Why artifacts shouldn't be sold...
by allen h. lutins and Lynn Clarke
* World-Wide Collectors Digest: Theft/Forgery Report Area
- from Laura Pope Robbins: "This site is dedicated to the report of thefts, forgeries, and counterfeits. The reports are garnered from stores, manufacturers, and individuals. In this case, the reports are not dedicated specifically to antiquities, but rather to collectibles of any sort."
* Yahoo's pages on Stolen and Looted Art and Antiquities
* "Zach and Austin's Cave"
- example of well-meaning destruction of rock-shelter by avocationalists

Codes of Ethics:

* Codes of Ethics Online Project
- Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology provides an online index of the official codes of ethics for more than 850 professional societies, corporations, government agencies, and academic institutions worldwide
* American Anthropological Association (AAA) Code of Ethics and the Final Report of the Commission to Review the AAA Statements on Ethics (also of note is the Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology (linked above)
* Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) Code of Ethics
* Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (National Academy of Sciences) On Being A Scientist: Responsible Conduct In Research
* Sierra Club Policy on Archeological Sites
* Society for American Archaeology (SAA) Principles of Archaeological Ethics
- includes Principle No. 3: Commercialization
The Society for American Archaeology has long recognized that the buying and selling of objects out of archaeological context is contributing to the destruction of the archaeological record on the American continents and around the world. The commercialization of archaeological objects - their use as commodities to be exploited for personal enjoyment or profit - results in the destruction of archaeological sites and of contextual information that is essential to understanding the archaeological record. Archaeologists should therefore carefully weigh the benefits to scholarship of a project against the costs of potentially enhancing the commercial value of archaeological objects. Whenever possible they should discourage, and should themselves avoid, activities that enhance the commercial value of archaeological objects, especially objects that are not curated in public institutions, or readily available for scientific study, public interpretation, and display.
* Society for American Archaeology (SAA) Bylaws
* Society for American Archaeology (SAA) Archaeology and You Chapter 5, Archaeology and the Law
- includes fairly explicit statements about museums and looting
* Register of Professional Archaeologists (ROPA) Code of Conduct & Bylaws
* University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics Professional Ethics Resources on WWW
* World Archaeological Congress Vermillion Accord
- adopted in 1989 on repatriation and reburial issues (mirror at

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

F. Other Internet Resources:

* Archaeological Ethics Bibliography
Smoke Pfeiffer's excellent resource
Radio & Television Transcripts

* 2003 Protecting Ancient History in Iraq. NPR Morning Edition Feb 20
Bob Edwards discusses Archaeological Institute of America's request to the US Department of Defense to plan for the protection of Iraqi heritage during any upcoming war. Mentioned is the fear of looting that may accompany the collapse of civil authority. ( transcript)
* (multimedia available) 2002 Bob Ballard. NPR Talk of the Nation Dec 2
Neal Conan interviews underwater explorer Bob Ballard, discoverer of the Titanic, ancient Roman wrecks, and PT 109. Includes comments on differences between archaeology and salvage, as well as legalities. (audio file RealAudio
* 2001 Sicily Art Theft. NPR All Things Considered Mar 29
Sylvia Poggioli reports that under an agreement signed recently by the United States and Italy, American art dealers and collectors must now prove that Italian antiquities they import have not been looted or stolen. Archeologists say stolen Italian artifacts have been supplying the art market for more than two centuries. Italian investigators have tracked down ancient Greek treasures looted from Morgantina, in central Sicily, to Manhattan and they are negotiating for their return. [mentions Italian Art Theft Squad and "tombaroli"] (transcript RealAudio - 7:00).
* 2000 Portrait of Wally. NPR Morning Edition Aug 31
"David D'Arcy reports on the dispute over ownership of a painting that the Nazis took from a Jewish art dealer in 1938 Vienna. Portrait of Wally, by Egon Schiele has been on loan to the Museum of Modern Art for the last two-and-a-half years. A federal judge ruled that the painting cannot be considered "stolen" because the American military returned it to the Austrian government in 1945. The Justice Department is asking the judge to reverse his ruling. The case has implications for the families of Holocaust victims, who are trying to recover art and other property that was looted by the Nazis." RealAudio recording
* 2000 War Loot. NPR All Things Considered (April 18, 2000)
David D'Arcy reports: "The Cleveland Museum of Art today posted more than 300 works in its collection with dubious origins. The culture minister of Germany was in New York today to talk, in part, about war loot after his country posted thousands of unclaimed objects it still holds on a Website. David D'Arcy reports on what US museums are and are *not* doing to return works to their owners." RealAudio recording
* 1999 WWII Stolen Property Trial. NPR Morning Edition May 25
David D'Arcy reports that a Russian woman is on trial in New York City federal court for trafficking in stolen property. (transcript RealAudio - 6:44).
* 1998 Italians Want Stolen Art Returned. NPR Morning Edition June 24
David D'Arcy reports on the efforts by the Italian government to retrieve stolen works of art (transcript RealAudio - 6:53).
* 1998 Elgin Marbles NPR Morning Edition June 23
Michael Goldfarb reports that Greece is calling for the return of the Elgin marbles -- statues that originally adorned the Parthenon in Athens -- following recent reports that the British Museum damaged the statues sixty years ago while cleaning them. (transcript RealAudio - 3:41)
* 1998 Who Owns Art? Talk of the Nation, 19 Feb, hour two. National Public Radio (NPR).
Ray Suarez: "A half century after World War II the debate over the ownership and movement of art and artifacts, during war and in peacetime, wages on. Government officials are currently struggling to balance the interests of the families of Holocaust victims and the interests of the current owners of a painting or sculpture. Join Ray Suarez and guests for a look at the ongoing battle over the ownership of cultural property." (Real Audio transcript)
Online Course Information
Courses/programs with a strong focus on heritage policy or law.

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Anthropology Department
From the page: "This course examines a number of issues relating to the study, interpretation, presentation and conservation of the past which are becoming more and more important in an increasingly politicized global environment."

Email Discussion & Dissemination Lists
Try the archives of the following mailing lists, with search words such as ethics, ethical, professional, collecting, collecters, looting, pothunting, standards, SOPA, and ROPA.

* ANTHRO-L: The General Anthropology List
Web archives:
Subscribe to:
Post Email to:
Listowner: Hugh Jarvis <>
email newsletter for sharing announcements about stolen objects
* ARCH-L: The Archaeology List
Web archives:
Subscribe to:
Post Email to:
Listowner: David Carlson <dcarlson @>
* Artifact - Material Culture Study and Methods List
Listowner: Susan Garfinkel <>
* ANTHRO-L: The General Anthropology List
Web archives:
Subscribe to:
Posting Email to:
Listowner: Hugh Jarvis <>
* HISTARCH: Historical Archaeology List
Subscribe to:
Send Email to:
Listowner: Anita Cohen-Williams <>
* MUSEUM-L: discussion of general museological issues
Subscribe to: Listserv@HOME.EASE.LSOFT.COM
Listowner: John Chadwick <>
* Museum Security Mailinglist
Listowner: Tom Cremers <>
Subscribe: form
* SALVARCH (to promote discussions between Salvagers and Archeologists)
Post Email to:
Listowner: Chris Frazier <>
* SUB-ARCH: Marine and Maritime Archaeology List
Subscribe to:
Post Email to:
Listowner: Anita Cohen-Williams <>
* TheftReports eNews List (from
Free for "anyone who has any interest in theft reports in the antiques & collectibles industry".
* WHNEWS: World Heritage Newsletter
Subscribe to:
Post Email to:

Symbols & Images
Relevant pictures or symbols.

click for larger version International Heritage Site Blue Shield Symbol
the symbol specified in the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict for marking cultural heritage sites

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

G. Attached Documents:
+ bibliography from Jeanette Greenfield's 1996 The Return of Cultural Treasures, Second Edition. (Cambridge, CUP).
+ bibliography from Karl E. Meyer's 1977 The Plundered Past (New York: Atheneum)
+ "Museums' stance on Nazi loot belies their role in a key case" by Walter V. Robinson, Boston Globe Feb 13, 1998
+ Robert J. Jeske Who Owns the Artifacts? from the Glyph (San Diego Society, a Chapter of the Archaeological Institute of America) September 1997 Issue

A. Flagrant Abuse | B. Periodicals | C. Books & Articles | D. Government Action & Legislation
E. Websites & Online Forums | F. Other Net Resources | G. Attached Documents
H. Acknowledgements/Contacts

H. Acknowledgements/Contacts:
Many thanks to the following people for their contributions (alphabetically):
Robert Ackerman <rackerma AT>
Antony Anderson <antonya AT>
Anthony M. Belli <anthony-belli AT>
Chris Chippindale <cc43 AT>
Mark Durney <mdurney86 AT>
Nick Eiteljorg <neiteljo AT>
Ricardo Elia <elia AT>
Magnus Fiskesjö <nf42 AT>
Douglas Frink <DSFrink AT>
David Gill <D.W.J.Gill AT>
Paul V. Heinrich <heinrich AT>
Robert Hicks <rhicks AT>
K. Kris Hirst <archaeology AT>
Brian Kenny <kenny AT>
Claire L. Lyons <CLyons AT>
Robert Mallouf <mallouf AT>
Fabio Maniscalco <isform AT>
Cheryl Ann Munson <munsonc AT>
Oscar White Muscarella <OscarBey AT>
Samuel Paley <clapaley AT>
Tony Platt <'amplatt AT EARTHLINK.NET>
Laura Pope Robbins <robbinsl AT>
Jonathan Sazonoff <saz AT>
Elizabeth Simpson <LizHanim AT>r;
Howard B. Tower, Jr. <ctower AT>
Gillian Wallace <gew22 AT>
John Whittaker <whittake AT>

© 2019 Hugh W. Jarvis except as noted. Your comments, corrections, and contributions are welcome!

Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 United States License.